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Finishing your phd thesis 15 top tips from those in the know higher nbsp

I recently had an email from a colleague asking me what I would do if I was examining a thesis and the vast majority of the literatures were over ten years old.Would this be a problem? What would I say? Well I agreed that this was nearly always a problem in science, where knowledge-building is usually taken to be iterative – researchers build on what has gone before.

But using dated literatures was also likely to be a problem in the social sciences, arts and humanities .But using dated literatures was also likely to be a problem in the social sciences, arts and humanities.

However, I said, I often saw another problem in these disciplines – theses which had the exact opposite difficulty – there was nothing in the literatures that was presented that was over ten years old.This could be equally worrying, I suggested.Age-related literature problems arise for examiners because having either too much ‘vintage’ OR too much ‘just off the press’ means that the writer is not achieving what literatures work is intended to do – namely : (1) the thesis writer must locate their work in the field With a tiny handful of exceptions, most fields of study are more than ten years old.

And even if they have just been invented, they usually draw on other fields which are well established.Examiners expect doctoral researchers to show that they understand something of the development of their field, and that they understand why it is the way that it is.In other words, the researcher must show how the field they are in, as well as the problem that they are researching, are historically situated.They must indicate what seminal texts and writers are relevant.

They must also indicate ongoing debates in the field.

An examiner may well conclude that a researcher who works with literatures that are all very recent is someone who has, either knowingly or not, adopted a kind of amnesiac stance to what they are doing.(2) the thesis writer must situate the contribution that they are going to make There are very few fields in which there has been no scholarly activity for a long time.Scholars generally live in crowded territories where someone is always writing something that is relevant to at least part of their endeavour.So reviewing the literatures doesn’t just mean coming to terms with history.

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It means getting to grips with the present.

In order to specify the contribution to be made, the researcher must survey the field and its trends – and this means right up to the moment.Presenting a set of texts that are over ten years old will appear to examiners as an ossified view, stuck in a particular period Old!Dominion!University!to!assist!graduate!students!and!their!committee! members!in!the!preparation!of!theses!and!dissertations.!The!primary!purpose!of!this!manual!is!to! provide!uniform!standards!regarding!style!and!format!while!allowing!enough!flexibility!to!satisfy! the!acceptable!practices!of!each!academic!discipline..Presenting a set of texts that are over ten years old will appear to examiners as an ossified view, stuck in a particular period.

Of course with a thesis, as with a book or an article, there does come a point when the researcher just has to stop reading and finish the piece off.There’s no doubt that it is absolutely infuriating for journal article writers to send something off for review and have it wait for months to be looked at and then be told by a referee that they haven’t referred to something that came out in the last two weeks scholarly research and writing under the direction of members of the Graduate Faculty.   information on eTD preparation and submission, go to   submission. If you cannot do this, contact the Office of Theses and. Dissertations for assistance. □. Go to the eTD website (http://etda.libraries.psu.edu/) and upload the final eTD;..There’s no doubt that it is absolutely infuriating for journal article writers to send something off for review and have it wait for months to be looked at and then be told by a referee that they haven’t referred to something that came out in the last two weeks.But this doesn’t matter so much with a thesis, as it’s possible to add a postscript or footnote about something new and crucial right up until the last few days.

And it’s also possible to have a conversation during the viva about why there isn’t a reference to something very recent, because of the necessity of a cut-off point.There really is not much excuse* for not having read at least a decent number of texts that have been around for the last few months and a few years.(3) the thesis writer must indicate what they are using from the field as a building block for their work.Very few researchers start from scratch.They always use some ideas and approaches that have gone before.

This is not a problem, it’s the way that knowledge is constructed.So one of the major tasks of the literature review is for the researcher to identify the ideas and approaches that they will use.If there is no recent literature referred to in the review, then the examiner is likely to read this as the researcher not knowing the field, and therefore not building on its most recent developments.Now I can imagine a piece of research where the researcher wants to go back to something that happened in the field some time before.

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They think there is something in a piece of work done quite some time ago that could be important to the work that they want to do.

In this case, the literature that is being used to develop their piece of research will be older.However, in order to make the case that this is needed, the thesis writer still needs to deal with more recent work, indicating why and where it is inadequate, and what the significance of the older literatures might be Formatting guidelines and submission procedures for dissertations and theses at the Johns Hopkins University.   site and pay your $60.00 fee; If you get an email asking for changes, follow the link and resubmit your corrected ETD; Forward a copy of your approval email to your appropriate graduate office, if required  .However, in order to make the case that this is needed, the thesis writer still needs to deal with more recent work, indicating why and where it is inadequate, and what the significance of the older literatures might be.

BUT THERE IS NO FORMULA OR RECIPE TO HELP.Clearly there is no hard and fast rule about how much ‘old’ and ‘new’ literatures must be used a literature review.It’s another case of what Barbara and I call the Goldilocks rule – not too much, not too little.Getting the balance right can be tricky for researchers, but not at the extremes and probably not in this case.Too much ‘old’ literature and the examiners worry, too much ‘new’ and they worry just as much! (* The exception here is in situations when researchers literally cannot access recent texts.This is the case in some parts of the world and it is why open access is so important.) Share this: 1) Make sure you meet the PhD requirements for your institution “PhD students and their supervisors often presume things without checking.

One supervisor told his student that a PhD was about 300 pages long so he wrote 300 pages.Unfortunately the supervisor had meant double-spaced, and the student had written single-spaced.Getting rid of 40,000 extra words with two weeks to go is not recommended.” ( Hannah Farrimond, lecturer in medical sociology, Exeter University) 2) Keep perspective “Everyone wants their thesis to be amazing, their magnum opus.But your most important work will come later.

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Your peers are unlikely to read your thesis and judge you on it.They are more likely to read any papers (articles, chapters, books) that result from it.” ( Dean D’Souza, PhD in cognitive neuroscience, Birkbeck, University of London) 3) Write the introduction last “Writing the introduction and conclusion together will help to tie up the thesis together, so save it for the end irrelevant material? 7. Is there a good enough sample of literature for the level (Ph.D, Master's, undergraduate) of my dissertation or thesis? 8. Have I considered as many alternative points of view as possible? 9. Will the reader find my literature review relevant, appropriate, and useful? 3. Searching for Good Material. Make  .” ( Dean D’Souza, PhD in cognitive neuroscience, Birkbeck, University of London) 3) Write the introduction last “Writing the introduction and conclusion together will help to tie up the thesis together, so save it for the end.

” ( Ashish Jaiswal, PhD in business education, University of Oxford) 4) Use apps “Trello is a project management tool (available as a smartphone app) which allows you to create ‘boards’ on which to pin all of your outstanding tasks, deadlines, and ideas.

It allows you to make checklists too so you know that all of your important stuff is listed and to-hand, meaning you can focus on one thing at a time 28 Jan 2010 - A bibliography is not just a bibliography: it is a canary in the doctoral mine. 2. Use phrases such as “some academics” or “all the literature” without mitigating statements or references. Generalisations infuriate me in first-year papers, but they are understandable. A 19-year-old student who states that “all  .It allows you to make checklists too so you know that all of your important stuff is listed and to-hand, meaning you can focus on one thing at a time.It’s satisfying to move notes into the ‘done’ column too.” ( Lucy Irving, PhD in psychology, Middlesex University) 5) Address the unanswered questions “There will always be unanswered questions – don’t try to ignore or, even worse, obfuscate them.On the contrary, actively draw attention to them; identify them in your conclusion as areas for further investigation.Your PhD viva will go badly if you’ve attempted to disregard or evade the unresolved issues that your thesis has inevitably opened up.

” ( Michael Perfect, PhD in English literature, University of Cambridge) 6) Buy your own laser printer “A basic monochrome laser printer that can print duplex (two-sided) can be bought online for less than £100, with off-brand replacement toners available for about £30 a pop.Repeatedly reprinting and editing draft thesis chapters has two very helpful functions.Firstly, it takes your work off the screen and onto paper, which is usually easier to proof.Secondly, it gives you a legitimate excuse to get away from your desk.

” ( James Brown, PhD in architectural education, Queen’s University Belfast) 7) Checking is important “On days when your brain is too tired to write, check quotations, bibliography etc so you’re still making progress.

” ( Julia Wright, professor of English at Dalhousie University, Canada) 8) Get feedback on the whole thesis “We often get feedback on individual chapters but plan to get feedback from your supervisor on the PhD as a whole to make sure it all hangs together nicely.

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” ( Mel Rohse, PhD in peace studies, University of Bradford) 9) Make sure you know when it will end “Sometimes supervisors use optimistic words such as ‘You are nearly there!’ Ask them to be specific.Are you three months away, or do you have six months’ worth of work? Or is it just a month’s load?” ( Rifat Mahbub, PhD in women’s studies, University of York) 10) Prepare for the viva “Don’t just focus on the thesis – the viva is very important too and examiners’ opinions can change following a successful viva.Remember that you are the expert in your specific field, not the examiners, and ask your supervisor to arrange a mock viva if practically possible How not to write a PhD thesis Times Higher Education THE.Remember that you are the expert in your specific field, not the examiners, and ask your supervisor to arrange a mock viva if practically possible.

” ( Christine Jones, 11) Develop your own style “Take into account everything your supervisor has said, attend to their suggestions about revisions to your work but also be true to your own style of writing.

What I found constructive was paying attention to the work of novelists I enjoy reading Need to purchase college dissertation antique literature single spaced 145 pages / 39875 words US Letter Size Platinum.What I found constructive was paying attention to the work of novelists I enjoy reading.It may seem that their style has nothing to do with your own field of research, but this does not matter.You can still absorb something of how they write and what makes it effective, compelling and believable.” ( Sarah Skyrme, PhD in sociology, Newcastle University) 12) Remember that more is not always better “A PhD thesis is not a race to the highest page count; don’t waste time padding.” ( Francis Woodhouse, PhD in mathematical biology, University of Cambridge) 13) Get a buddy “Find a colleague, your partner, a friend who is willing to support you.

Share with them your milestones and goals, and agree to be accountable to them.This doesn’t mean they get to hassle or nag you, it just means someone else knows what you’re up to, and can help to check if your planning is realistic and achievable.” ( Cassandra Steer, PhD in criminology, University of Amsterdam) 14) Don’t pursue perfectionism “Remember that a PhD doesn’t have to be a masterpiece.Nothing more self-crippling than perfectionism.” ( Nathan Waddell, lecturer in modernist literature, Nottingham University) 15) Look after yourself “Go outside.

Fresh air, trees and sunshine do wonders for what’s left of your sanity.

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” ( Helen Coverdale, PhD in law, LSE) • Do you have any tips to add? Share your advice in the comments below.Formatting Guidelines & Checklist Submission Checklist Start the process after you have defended and made any final edits to your thesis or dissertation Check the formatting guidelines to make sure your pages are numbered correctly and are arranged in the proper order Contact the ETD office if you have any questions Save your ETD as a PDF/a file Login to the submission system using your JHED ID Enter the required descriptive fields Read and agree to the submission agreement Upload your PDF/A Go to the fee payment site and pay your $60.00 fee If you get an email asking for changes, follow the link and resubmit your corrected ETD Forward a copy of your approval email to your appropriate graduate office, if required General Formatting Following these formatting guidelines while preparing your ETD will ensure that you have an easily readable, professional-looking work Formatting Guidelines Checklist Sheridan Libraries.

00 fee If you get an email asking for changes, follow the link and resubmit your corrected ETD Forward a copy of your approval email to your appropriate graduate office, if required General Formatting Following these formatting guidelines while preparing your ETD will ensure that you have an easily readable, professional-looking work.

In addition, these requirements will enable you to print copies for yourself, your advisor, or family members, if you so choose.Order and Content Spacing and Type The body of the text and abstract must be double-spaced except for footnotes or long quotations What font should I choose for my thesis The Thesis Whisperer.Order and Content Spacing and Type The body of the text and abstract must be double-spaced except for footnotes or long quotations.Fonts such as Times Roman, Bookman, New Century Schoolbook, Garamond, Palatine, and Courier are acceptable and commonly found on most computers.The same type must be used throughout the body of the text.The font size must be 10 point or larger and footnotes must be two sizes smaller than the text but no smaller than eight (8) points order religion case study Business double spaced Platinum.

The font size must be 10 point or larger and footnotes must be two sizes smaller than the text but no smaller than eight (8) points.

Chapter, section, or other headings should be of a consistent font and size throughout the ETD, as should labels for illustrations, charts, and figures.Margins The ETD must have a margin of 1 inches on the left side of the page if you are planning to print and bind it.Only one inch is required if you are only producing a digital version.The other three (3) sides of the page, top, right side and bottom, must have a one (1) inch margin.This requirement applies to all portions of text (including footnotes/endnotes), as well as to pages containing charts, graphs, tables, photographs, etc.

When landscaping page orientation for a chart or table, etc.the binding side must maintain the 1 inch margin.

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For landscape, that would be at the top of the page.Pagination You must print on each blank page “Intended to be blank.

” Each page must be numbered within the margin Should i order a antique literature dissertation Standard Academic one hour American.” Each page must be numbered within the margin.

All numbers must be centered at the bottom of the page.For the front matter, (abstract, acknowledgments, etc.) use small Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv, etc.The numbering begins with ii, the title page counts as i, but the number does not appear.For the remainder of the ETD, including text, illustrations, appendices, and bibliography, use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.The numbering begins with one (1) and runs consecutively to the end of the manuscript.Do not use suffixes to the Arabic numerals, such as 12a.

If the description of an illustration or table is too long to be placed on the same page, it should be placed on the previous page and numbered accordingly.Pages containing charts, graphs, tables, or photographs must be numbered consecutively with the text.Title Page Words chosen for the title should be carefully selected to represent the subject content as accurately as possible.They are frequently used as keywords when the subject is being searched.

Appropriate substitutes for Greek letters, symbols, formulas, superscripts, and subscripts must be used, as these may not be included in the title of the dissertation/thesis.

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The entire title page must be centered within the left and right margins.The title itself must be written in all capital letters, single or double-spaced.The page should adhere to the format on the sample provided (link on the bottom of this page) the literature review how old are the sources patter.The page should adhere to the format on the sample provided (link on the bottom of this page).

Title: Approximately 1 inches from top of page Author: Drop down approximately 1 inch below the title and type the word “by.” On the next line below “by” (single spaced) type your name, see example Statement: If writing a dissertation, write the following in two lines as shown here, single spaced, approximately 1 inches below your name:“A dissertation submitted to Johns Hopkins University in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy” If writing a masters thesis, write the following in two lines as shown here, single spaced, approximately 1 inches below your name: “A thesis submitted to Johns Hopkins University in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master of… (e 19 Aug 2013 - Age-related literature problems arise for examiners because having either too much 'vintage' OR too much 'just off the press' means that the writer is not   However, in order to make the case that this is needed, the thesis writer still needs to deal with more recent work, indicating why and where it is  .

” On the next line below “by” (single spaced) type your name, see example Statement: If writing a dissertation, write the following in two lines as shown here, single spaced, approximately 1 inches below your name:“A dissertation submitted to Johns Hopkins University in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy” If writing a masters thesis, write the following in two lines as shown here, single spaced, approximately 1 inches below your name: “A thesis submitted to Johns Hopkins University in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master of… (e.

) Location of JHU: Approximately inch below the statement, type the following: Baltimore, Maryland Submission date: on the next line below the location (single spaced) enter the month and year you submit your thesis to the ETD Submission Tool 19 Aug 2013 - Age-related literature problems arise for examiners because having either too much 'vintage' OR too much 'just off the press' means that the writer is not   However, in order to make the case that this is needed, the thesis writer still needs to deal with more recent work, indicating why and where it is  .) Location of JHU: Approximately inch below the statement, type the following: Baltimore, Maryland Submission date: on the next line below the location (single spaced) enter the month and year you submit your thesis to the ETD Submission Tool.Notice of Copyright: If you choose to type the notice of copyright it will be approximately 1 to 2 inches from the bottom of the page, it will include the copyright symbol, the year you completed the thesis and your name on the first line .Notice of Copyright: If you choose to type the notice of copyright it will be approximately 1 to 2 inches from the bottom of the page, it will include the copyright symbol, the year you completed the thesis and your name on the first line.The second line (single spaced) will have the statement “All Rights Reserved.

” Abstract Each dissertation or thesis must contain an abstract immediately following the title page.It should present a succinct account of the work.The abstract should contain: a statement of the problem or theory procedure or methods conclusions The abstract must be double-spaced and should not be more than 350 words.The abstract must provide the name of the readers/advisors at the bottom and conform to all requirements for the printing of the dissertation.All abstracts must be in English, even if permission has been granted for a dissertation to be written in a language other than English.

Footnotes & Endnotes The arrangement of footnotes or endnotes should conform to the established practice in a given field.Students may ascertain what this practice is from the department or use a standard manual of style such as A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, or the MLA Style Manual.

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Footnotes must be produced in a font size two point sizes smaller than the text.Acknowledgments & Curriculum Vitae If the student desires to make acknowledgments, these should be printed on a separate page.The final page of the dissertation should contain a brief biographical sketch 27 Aug 2014 - On the contrary, actively draw attention to them; identify them in your conclusion as areas for further investigation. Your PhD viva will go badly if you've attempted to disregard or evade the unresolved issues that your thesis has inevitably opened up.” (Michael Perfect, PhD in English literature, University of  .

The final page of the dissertation should contain a brief biographical sketch.

This “scholarly life” or “curriculum vitae” should record the date and location of the author’s birth and the salient facts of his or her academic training and experience in teaching and research.Sample Title Page Here is an example of a dissertation with a properly formatted title page.Note that the copyright statement is optional.PDF/A Creation PDF/A is an ISO-standardized version of the Portable Document Format (PDF) specialized for the digital preservation of electronic documents.You need to save your dissertation as a PDF/A file and upload it as your official submission.

For more information, see the Wikpedia article on the format.Please note that while you can save a Word for Windows document as a PDF/a (see below), you cannot do so directly from Word for Mac.If you are a Mac user, you probably want to use the Adobe Acrobat Pro method.Some things to keep in mind about PDF/A are: you cannot include audio and video content; still images are fine you cannot include JavaScript or executable files fonts must be embedded If you need to include audio, video, or other files, you can submit them as supplementary files.Contact us at [email protected] for more help with PDF/A or supplementary files.

This program is available to all Hopkins students in the Computing Lab at Krieger Hall 160.To create a PDF/a from Word for Windows: click “file” then “save as PDF” make sure file type is “pdf files” click on Options and a box with “PDF Options” will open check the “Create PDF/A” box, then click “OK” and “Save”.

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To create a PDF/A from LaTeX: follow the instructions for using a LaTeX template the Library has no LaTeX experience, so use this method at your own risk!