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Customer Value Propositions in Business Markets Reprint: R0603F Examples of consumer value propositions that resonate with customers are exceptionally difficult to find.When properly constructed, value propositions force suppliers to focus on what their offerings are really worth.
Once companies become disciplined about understanding their customers, they can make smarter choices about where to allocate scarce resources To use a template, best free templates powerpoint. 30 best and free powerpoint templates to download. Powerpoint templates: 5 best sites to find that perfect. Low prices for viagra, 24/7 online support, available with world wide delivery. Buy power point presentation, papers writing service in uk. 20 outstanding business plan .Once companies become disciplined about understanding their customers, they can make smarter choices about where to allocate scarce resources.
The authors illuminate the pitfalls of current approaches, then present a systematic method for developing value propositions that are meaningful to target customers and that focus suppliers’ efforts on creating superior value.When managers construct a customer value proposition, they often simply list all the benefits their offering might deliver.But the relative simplicity of this all-benefits approach may have a major drawback: benefit assertion.In other words, managers may claim advantages for features their customers don’t care about in the least.
Other suppliers try to answer the question, Why should our firm purchase your offering instead of your competitor’s? But without a detailed understanding of the customer’s requirements and preferences, suppliers can end up stressing points of difference that deliver relatively little value to the target customer.The pitfall with this approach is value presumption: assuming that any favorable points of difference must be valuable for the customer.Drawing on the best practices of a handful of suppliers in business markets, the authors advocate a resonating focus approach.Suppliers can provide simple, yet powerfully captivating, consumer value propositions by making their offerings superior on the few elements that matter most to target customers, demonstrating and documenting the value of this superior performance, and communicating it in a way that conveys a sophisticated understanding of the customer’s business priorities.
The Idea in Brief If you sell products to other companies, you know how hard it’s become to win their business.
Your customers—pressured to control costs—seem to care only about price.But if you lower prices to stimulate sales, your profits shrink.So how can you persuade your business customers to pay the premium prices your offerings deserve? Craft a compelling customer value proposition.Research potential customers’ enterprises, identifying their unique requirements.Then explain how your offerings outmatch your rivals’ on the criteria that matter most to customers.
Document the cost savings and profits your products deliver to existing customers—and will deliver to new customers.The payoff? You help your customers slash costs—while generating profitable growth for yourself.One company that manufactured resins used in exterior paints discovered this firsthand.By researching the needs of commercial painting contractors—a key customer segment—the company learned that labor constituted the lion’s share of contractors’ costs, while paint made up just 15% of costs.Armed with this insight, the resin maker emphasized that its product dried so fast that contractors could apply two coats in one day—substantially lowering labor costs.
Customers snapped up the product—and happily shelled out a 40% price premium for it.The Idea in Practice Understand Customers’ Businesses Invest time and effort to understand your customers’ businesses and identify their unique requirements and preferences.Example:The resin manufacturer deepened its understanding of key customers in several ways.It enrolled managers in courses on how painting contractors estimate jobs.It conducted focus groups and field tests to study products’ performance on crucial criteria.
It also asked customers to identify performance trade-offs they were willing to make and to indicate their willingness to pay for paints that delivered enhanced performance.And it stayed current on customer needs by joining industry associations composed of key customer segments.Substantiate Your Value Claims “We can save you money!” won’t cut it as a customer value proposition.Back up this claim in accessible, persuasive language that describes the differences between your offerings and rivals’.And explain how those differences translate into monetary worth for customers.
Example:Rockwell Automation precisely calculated cost savings from reduced power usage that customers would gain by purchasing Rockwell’s pump solution instead of a competitor’s comparable offering.Rockwell used industry-specific metrics to communicate about functionality and performance—including kilowatt-hours spent, number of operating hours per year, and dollars per kilowatt-hour.Document Value Delivered Create written accounts of cost savings or added value that existing customers have actually captured by using your offerings.And conduct on-site pilots at prospective customer locations to gather data on your products’ performance.Example:Chemical manufacturer Akzo Nobel conducted a two-week pilot on a production reactor at a prospective customer’s facility.
AN’s goal? To study the performance of its high-purity metal organics product relative to the next best alternative in producing compound semiconductor wafers.The study proved that AN’s product was as good as or better than rivals’ and that it significantly lowered energy and maintenance costs.Make Customer Value Proposition a Central Business Skill Improve and reward managers’ ability to craft compelling customer value propositions.Example:Quaker Chemical conducts a value-proposition training program annually for chemical program managers.The managers review case studies from industries Quaker serves and participate in simulated customer interviews to gather information needed to devise proposals.
The team with the best proposal earns “bragging rights”—highly valued in Quaker’s competitive culture.Managers who develop proposals that their director deems viable win gift certificates.“Customer value proposition” has become one of the most widely used terms in business markets in recent years.Yet our management-practice research reveals that there is no agreement as to what constitutes a customer value proposition—or what makes one persuasive.Moreover, we find that most value propositions make claims of savings and benefits to the customer without backing them up.
An offering may actually provide superior value—but if the supplier doesn’t demonstrate and document that claim, a customer manager will likely dismiss it as marketing puffery.Customer managers, increasingly held accountable for reducing costs, don’t have the luxury of simply believing suppliers’ assertions.Take the case of a company that makes integrated circuits (ICs).It hoped to supply 5 million units to an electronic device manufacturer for its next-generation product.In the course of negotiations, the supplier’s salesperson learned that he was competing against a company whose price was 10 cents lower per unit.
The customer asked each salesperson why his company’s offering was superior.This salesperson based his value proposition on the service that he, personally, would provide.Unbeknownst to the salesperson, the customer had built a customer value model, which found that the company’s offering, though 10 cents higher in price per IC, was actually worth 15.The electronics engineer who was leading the development project had recommended that the purchasing manager buy those ICs, even at the higher price.
The service was, indeed, worth something in the model—but just 0.2 cents! Unfortunately, the salesperson had overlooked the two elements of his company’s IC offering that were most valuable to the customer, evidently unaware how much they were worth to that customer and, objectively, how superior they made his company’s offering to that of the competitor.Not surprisingly, when push came to shove, perhaps suspecting that his service was not worth the difference in price, the salesperson offered a 10-cent price concession to win the business—consequently leaving at least a half million dollars on the table.Some managers view the customer value proposition as a form of spin their marketing departments develop for advertising and promotional copy.
This shortsighted view neglects the very real contribution of value propositions to superior business performance.
Properly constructed, they force companies to rigorously focus on what their offerings are really worth to their customers.Once companies become disciplined about understanding customers, they can make smarter choices about where to allocate scarce company resources in developing new offerings.We conducted management-practice research over the past two years in Europe and the United States to understand what constitutes a customer value proposition and what makes one persuasive to customers.One striking discovery is that it is exceptionally difficult to find examples of value propositions that resonate with customers.Here, drawing on the best practices of a handful of suppliers in business markets, we present a systematic approach for developing value propositions that are meaningful to target customers and that focus suppliers’ efforts on creating superior value.
Three Kinds of Value Propositions We have classified the ways that suppliers use the term “value proposition” into three types: all benefits, favorable points of difference, and resonating focus.(See the exhibit “Which Alternative Conveys Value to Customers?”) Which Alternative Conveys Value to Customers? Suppliers use the term “value proposition” three different ways.
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Most managers simply list all the benefits they believe that their offering might deliver to target customers.Some managers do recognize that the customer has an alternative, but they often make the mistake of assuming that favorable points of difference must be valuable for the customer.
Best-practice suppliers base their value proposition on the few elements that matter most to target customers, demonstrate the value of this superior performance, and communicate it in a way that conveys a sophisticated understanding of the customer’s business priorities Sitemap Barrykang com.Best-practice suppliers base their value proposition on the few elements that matter most to target customers, demonstrate the value of this superior performance, and communicate it in a way that conveys a sophisticated understanding of the customer’s business priorities.
Our research indicates that most managers, when asked to construct a customer value proposition, simply list all the benefits they believe that their offering might deliver to target customers.This approach requires the least knowledge about customers and competitors and, thus, the least amount of work to construct.
However, its relative simplicity has a major potential drawback: benefit assertion Drawing on the best practices of a handful of suppliers in business markets, the authors advocate a resonating focus approach. Suppliers can provide simple, yet powerfully captivating, consumer value propositions by making their offerings superior on the few elements that matter most to target customers, demonstrating .However, its relative simplicity has a major potential drawback: benefit assertion.Managers may claim advantages for features that actually provide no benefit to target customers.Such was the case with a company that sold high-performance gas chromatographs to R&D laboratories in large companies, universities, and government agencies in the Benelux countries freeandroidgaming.com/presentation/should-i-purchase-a-communication-technology-presentation-phd-104-pages-28600-words-standard-original.Such was the case with a company that sold high-performance gas chromatographs to R&D laboratories in large companies, universities, and government agencies in the Benelux countries.One feature of a particular chromatograph allowed R&D lab customers to maintain a high degree of sample integrity.Seeking growth, the company began to market the most basic model of this chromatograph to a new segment: commercial laboratories.
In initial meetings with prospective customers, the firm’s salespeople touted the benefits of maintaining sample integrity.Their prospects scoffed at this benefit assertion, stating that they routinely tested soil and water samples, for which maintaining sample integrity was not a concern.The supplier was taken aback and forced to rethink its value proposition.The Building Blocks of a Successful Customer Value Proposition A supplier’s offering may have many technical, economic, service, or social benefits that deliver value to customers—but in all probability, so do competitors’ offerings.Thus, the essential question is, “How do these value elements compare with those of the next best alternative?” We’ve found that it’s useful to sort value elements into three types.
Points of parity are elements with essentially the same performance or functionality as those of the next best alternative.Points of difference are elements that make the supplier’s offering either superior or inferior to the next best alternative.Points of contention are elements about which the supplier and its customers disagree regarding how their performance or functionality compares with those of the next best alternative.Either the supplier regards a value element as a point of difference in its favor, while the customer regards that element as a point of parity with the next best alternative, or the supplier regards a value element as a point of parity, while the customer regards it as a point of difference in favor of the next best alternative.Another pitfall of the all benefits value proposition is that many, even most, of the benefits may be points of parity with those of the next best alternative, diluting the effect of the few genuine points of difference.
Managers need to clearly identify in their customer value propositions which elements are points of parity and which are points of difference.(See the exhibit “The Building Blocks of a Successful Customer Value Proposition.”) For example, an international engineering consultancy was bidding for a light-rail project.The last chart of the company’s presentation listed ten reasons why the municipality should award the project to the firm.But the chart had little persuasive power because the other two finalists could make most of the same claims.
Put yourself, for a moment, in the place of the prospective client.Suppose each firm, at the end of its presentation, gives ten reasons why you ought to award it the project, and the lists from all the firms are almost the same.If each firm is saying essentially the same thing, how do you make a choice? You ask each of the firms to give a final, best price, and then you award the project to the firm that gives the largest price concession.Any distinctions that do exist have been overshadowed by the firms’ greater sameness.The second type of value proposition explicitly recognizes that the customer has an alternative.The recent experience of a leading industrial gas supplier illustrates this perspective.A customer sent the company a request for proposal stating that the two or three suppliers that could demonstrate the most persuasive value propositions would be invited to visit the customer to discuss and refine their proposals.After this meeting, the customer would select a sole supplier for this business.As this example shows, “Why should our firm purchase your offering instead of your competitor’s?” is a more pertinent question than “Why should our firm purchase your offering?” The first question focuses suppliers on differentiating their offerings from the next best alternative, a process that requires detailed knowledge of that alternative, whether it be buying a competitor’s offering or solving the customer’s problem in a different way.
Customer managers, increasingly held accountable for reducing costs, don’t have the luxury of simply believing suppliers’ assertions.Knowing that an element of an offering is a point of difference relative to the next best alternative does not, however, convey the value of this difference to target customers.Furthermore, a product or service may have several points of difference, complicating the supplier’s understanding of which ones deliver the greatest value.Without a detailed understanding of the customer’s requirements and preferences, and what it is worth to fulfill them, suppliers may stress points of difference that deliver relatively little value to the target customer.
Each of these can lead to the pitfall of value presumption: assuming that favorable points of difference must be valuable for the customer.
Our opening anecdote about the IC supplier that unnecessarily discounted its price exemplifies this pitfall.Although the favorable points of difference value proposition is preferable to an all benefits proposition for companies crafting a consumer value proposition, the resonating focus value proposition should be the gold standard.This approach acknowledges that the managers who make purchase decisions have major, ever-increasing levels of responsibility and often are pressed for time.They want to do business with suppliers that fully grasp critical issues in their business and deliver a customer value proposition that’s simple yet powerfully captivating.
Suppliers can provide such a customer value proposition by making their offerings superior on the few elements that matter most to target customers, demonstrating and documenting the value of this superior performance, and communicating it in a way that conveys a sophisticated understanding of the customer’s business priorities.This type of proposition differs from favorable points of difference in two significant respects.Although a supplier’s offering may possess several favorable points of difference, the resonating focus proposition steadfastly concentrates on the one or two points of difference that deliver, and whose improvement will continue to deliver, the greatest value to target customers.To better leverage limited resources, a supplier might even cede to the next best alternative the favorable points of difference that customers value least, so that the supplier can concentrate its resources on improving the one or two points of difference customers value most.
Second, the resonating focus proposition may contain a point of parity.This occurs either when the point of parity is required for target customers even to consider the supplier’s offering or when a supplier wants to counter customers’ mistaken perceptions that a particular value element is a point of difference in favor of a competitor’s offering.This latter case arises when customers believe that the competitor’s offering is superior but the supplier believes its offerings are comparable—customer value research provides empirical support for the supplier’s assertion.To give practical meaning to resonating focus, consider the following example.Sonoco, a global packaging supplier headquartered in Hartsville, South Carolina, approached a large European customer, a maker of consumer packaged goods, about redesigning the packaging for one of its product lines.
Sonoco believed that the customer would profit from updated packaging, and, by proposing the initiative itself, Sonoco reinforced its reputation as an innovator.Although the redesigned packaging provided six favorable points of difference relative to the next best alternative, Sonoco chose to emphasize one point of parity and two points of difference in what it called its distinctive value proposition (DVP).The value proposition was that the redesigned packaging would deliver significantly greater manufacturing efficiency in the customer’s fill lines, through higher-speed closing, and provide a distinctive look that consumers would find more appealing—all for the same price as the present packaging.Sonoco chose to include a point of parity in its value proposition because, in this case, the customer would not even consider a packaging redesign if the price went up.The first point of difference in the value proposition (increased efficiency) delivered cost savings to the customer, allowing it to move from a seven-day, three-shift production schedule during peak times to a five-day, two-shift operation.
The second point of difference delivered an advantage at the consumer level, helping the customer to grow its revenues and profits incrementally.In persuading the customer to change to the redesigned packaging, Sonoco did not neglect to mention the other favorable points of difference.Rather, it chose to place much greater emphasis on the two points of difference and the one point of parity that mattered most to the customer, thereby delivering a value proposition with resonating focus.Stressing as a point of parity what customers may mistakenly presume to be a point of difference favoring a competitor’s offering can be one of the most important parts of constructing an effective value proposition.Take the case of Intergraph, an Alabama-based provider of engineering software to engineering, procurement, and construction firms.
One software product that Intergraph offers, SmartPlant P&ID, enables customers to define flow processes for valves, pumps, and piping within plants they are designing and generate piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID).Some prospective customers wrongly presume that SmartPlant’s drafting performance would not be as good as that of the next best alternative, because the alternative is built on computer-aided design (CAD), a better-known drafting tool than the relational database platform on which SmartPlant is built.So Intergraph tackled the perception head on, gathering data from reference customers to substantiate that this point of contention was actually a point of parity.Intergraph’s resonating focus value proposition for this software consisted of one point of parity (which the customer initially thought was a point of contention), followed by three points of difference: Point of parity: Using this software, customers can create P&ID graphics (either drawings or reports) as fast, if not faster, as they can using CAD, the next best alternative.
Point of difference: This software checks all of the customer’s upstream and downstream data related to plant assets and procedures, using universally accepted engineering practices, company-specific rules, and project- or process-specific rules at each stage of the design process, so that the customer avoids costly mistakes such as missing design change interdependencies or, worse, ordering the wrong equipment.Point of difference: This software is integrated with upstream and downstream tasks, such as process simulation and instrumentation design, thus requiring no reentry of data (and reducing the margin for error).
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Point of difference: With this software, the customer is able to link remote offices to execute the project and then merge the pieces into a single deliverable database to hand to its customer, the facility owner.Resonating focus value propositions are very effective, but they’re not easy to craft: Suppliers must undertake customer value research to gain the insights to construct them.Despite all of the talk about customer value, few suppliers have actually done customer value research, which requires time, effort, persistence, and some creativity .
Despite all of the talk about customer value, few suppliers have actually done customer value research, which requires time, effort, persistence, and some creativity.
But as the best practices we studied highlight, thinking through a resonating focus value proposition disciplines a company to research its customers’ businesses enough to help solve their problems.As the experience of a leading resins supplier amply illustrates, doing customer value research pays off.(See the sidebar “Case in Point: Transforming a Weak Value Proposition Best websites to write powerpoint presentation asian literature APA two hours Platinum single spaced.(See the sidebar “Case in Point: Transforming a Weak Value Proposition.”) Case in Point: Transforming a Weak Value Proposition A leading supplier of specialty resins used in architectural coatings—such as paint for buildings—recognized that its customers were coming under pressure to comply with increasingly strict environmental regulations.At the same time, the supplier reasoned, no coating manufacturer would want to sacrifice performance.
So the resins supplier developed a new type of high-performance resins that would enable its customers to comply with stricter environmental standards—albeit at a higher price but with no reduction in performance.In its initial discussions with customers who were using the product on a trial basis, the resins supplier was surprised by the tepid reaction it received, particularly from commercial managers.They were not enthusiastic about the sales prospects for higher-priced coatings with commercial painting contractors, the primary target market.They would not, they said, move to the new resin until regulation mandated it.Taken aback, the resins supplier decided to conduct customer value research to better understand the requirements and preferences of its customers’ customers and how the performance of the new resin would affect their total cost of doing business.
The resins supplier went so far as to study the requirements and preferences of the commercial painting contractors’ customers—building owners.The supplier conducted a series of focus groups and field tests with painting contractors to gather data.The performance on primary customer requirements—such as coverage, dry time, and durability—was studied, and customers were asked to make performance trade-offs and indicate their willingness to pay for coatings that delivered enhanced performance.The resins supplier also joined a commercial painting contractor industry association, enrolled managers in courses on how contractors are taught to estimate jobs, and trained the staff to work with the job-estimation software used by painting contractors.
Several insights emerged from this customer value research.
Most notable was the realization that only 15% of a painting contractor’s costs are the coatings; labor is by far the largest cost component.If a coating could provide greater productivity—for example, a faster drying time that allowed two coats to be applied during a single eight-hour shift—contractors would likely accept a higher price.The resins supplier retooled its value proposition from a single dimension, environmental regulation compliance, to a resonating focus value proposition where environmental compliance played a significant but minor part.The new value proposition was “The new resin enables coatings producers to make architectural coatings with higher film build and gives the painting contractors the ability to put on two coats within a single shift, thus increasing painter productivity while also being environmentally compliant.” Coatings customers enthusiastically accepted this value proposition, and the resins supplier was able to get a 40% price premium for its new offering over the traditional resin product.
Substantiate Customer Value Propositions In a series of business roundtable discussions we conducted in Europe and the United States, customer managers reported that “We can save you money!” has become almost a generic value proposition from prospective suppliers.But, as one participant in Rotterdam wryly observed, most of the suppliers were telling “fairy tales.” After he heard a pitch from a prospective supplier, he would follow up with a series of questions to determine whether the supplier had the people, processes, tools, and experience to actually save his firm money.As often as not, they could not really back up the claims.Simply put, to make customer value propositions persuasive, suppliers must be able to demonstrate and document them.
Value word equations enable a supplier to show points of difference and points of contention relative to the next best alternative, so that customer managers can easily grasp them and find them persuasive.A value word equation expresses in words and simple mathematical operators (for example, + and divide) how to assess the differences in functionality or performance between a supplier’s offering and the next best alternative and how to convert those differences into dollars.Best-practice firms like Intergraph and, in Milwaukee, Rockwell Automation use value word equations to make it clear to customers how their offerings will lower costs or add value relative to the next best alternatives.The data needed to provide the value estimates are most often collected from the customer’s business operations by supplier and customer managers working together, but, at times, data may come from outside sources, such as industry association studies.Consider a value word equation that Rockwell Automation used to calculate the cost savings from reduced power usage that a customer would gain by using a Rockwell Automation motor solution instead of a competitor’s comparable offering: Power Reduction Cost Savings = kW spent x number of operating hours per year x $ per kW hour x number of years system solution in operation Competitor Solution – kW spent x number of operating hours per year x $ per kW hour x number of years system solution in operation Rockwell Automation Solution This value word equation uses industry-specific terminology that suppliers and customers in business markets rely on to communicate precisely and efficiently about functionality and performance.
Demonstrate Customer Value in Advance Prospective customers must see convincingly the cost savings or added value they can expect from using the supplier’s offering instead of the next best alternative.Best-practice suppliers, such as Rockwell Automation and precision-engineering and manufacturing firm Nijdra Groep in the Netherlands, use value case histories to demonstrate this.Value case histories document the cost savings or added value that reference customers have actually received from their use of the supplier’s market offering.Another way that best-practice firms, such as Pennsylvania-based GE Infrastructure Water & Process Technologies (GEIW&PT) and SKF USA, show the value of their offerings to prospective customers in advance is through value calculators.These customer value assessment tools typically are spreadsheet software applications that salespeople or value specialists use on laptops as part of a consultative selling approach to demonstrate the value that customers likely would receive from the suppliers’ offerings.
When necessary, best-practice suppliers go to extraordinary lengths to demonstrate the value of their offerings relative to the next best alternatives.The polymer chemicals unit of Akzo Nobel in Chicago recently conducted an on-site two-week pilot on a production reactor at a prospective customer’s facility to gather data firsthand on the performance of its high-purity metal organics offering relative to the next best alternative in producing compound semiconductor wafers.Akzo Nobel paid this prospective customer for these two weeks, in which each day was a trial because of daily considerations such as output and maintenance.Akzo Nobel now has data from an actual production machine to substantiate assertions about its product and anticipated cost savings, and evidence that the compound semiconductor wafers produced are as good as or better than those the customer currently grows using the next best alternative.To let its prospective clients’ customers verify this for themselves, Akzo Nobel brought them sample wafers it had produced for testing.
Akzo Nobel combines this point of parity with two points of difference: significantly lower energy costs for conversion and significantly lower maintenance costs.Document Customer Value Demonstrating superior value is necessary, but this is no longer enough for a firm to be considered a best-practice company.Suppliers also must document the cost savings and incremental profits (from additional revenue generated) their offerings deliver to the companies that have purchased them.Thus, suppliers work with their customers to define how cost savings or incremental profits will be tracked and then, after a suitable period of time, work with customer managers to document the results.They use value documenters to further refine their customer value models, create value case histories, enable customer managers to get credit for the cost savings and incremental profits produced, and (because customer managers know that the supplier is willing to return later to document the value received) enhance the credibility of the offering’s value.
A pioneer in substantiating value propositions over the past decade, GEIW&PT documents the results provided to customers through its value generation planning (VGP) process and tools, which enable its field personnel to understand customers’ businesses and to plan, execute, and document projects that have the highest value impact for its customers.An online tracking tool allows GEIW&PT and customer managers to easily monitor the execution and documented results of each project the company undertakes.Since it began using VGP in 1992, GEIW&PT has documented more than 1,000 case histories, accounting for $1.3 billion in customer cost savings, 24 billion gallons of water conserved, 5.5 million tons of waste eliminated, and 4.
As suppliers gain experience documenting the value provided to customers, they become knowledgeable about how their offerings deliver superior value to customers and even how the value delivered varies across kinds of customers.Because of this extensive and detailed knowledge, they become confident in predicting the cost savings and added value that prospective customers likely will receive.Some best-practice suppliers are even willing to guarantee a certain amount of savings before a customer signs on.A global automotive engine manufacturer turned to Quaker Chemical, a Pennsylvania-based specialty chemical and management services firm, for help in significantly reducing its operating costs.
Quaker’s team of chemical, mechanical, and environmental engineers, which has been meticulously documenting cost savings to customers for years, identified potential savings for this customer through process and productivity improvements.Then Quaker implemented its proposed solution—with a guarantee that savings would be five times more than what the engine manufacturer spent annually just to purchase coolant.In real numbers, that meant savings of $1.What customer wouldn’t find such a guarantee persuasive? Superior Business Performance We contend that customer value propositions, properly constructed and delivered, make a significant contribution to business strategy and performance.
GE Infrastructure Water & Process Technologies’ recent development of a new service offering to refinery customers illustrates how general manager John Panichella allocates limited resources to initiatives that will generate the greatest incremental value for his company and its customers.For example, a few years ago, a field rep had a creative idea for a new product, based on his comprehensive understanding of refinery processes and how refineries make money.The field rep submitted a new product introduction (NPI) request to the hydrocarbon industry marketing manager for further study.Field reps or anyone else in the organization can submit NPI requests whenever they have an inventive idea for a customer solution that they believe would have a large value impact but that GEIW&PT presently does not offer.
Industry marketing managers, who have extensive industry expertise, then perform scoping studies to understand the potential of the proposed products to deliver significant value to segment customers.
They create business cases for the proposed product, which are “racked and stacked” for review.The senior management team of GEIW&PT sort through a large number of potential initiatives competing for limited resources.
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The team approved Panichella’s initiative, which led to the development of a new offering that provided refinery customers with documented cost savings amounting to five to ten times the price they paid for the offering, thus realizing a compelling value proposition.Some best-practice suppliers are even willing to guarantee a certain amount of savings before a customer signs on.Sonoco, at the corporate level, has made customer value propositions fundamental to its business strategy Customer Value Propositions in Business Markets Harvard Business nbsp.
Sonoco, at the corporate level, has made customer value propositions fundamental to its business strategy.
Since 2003, its CEO, Harris DeLoach, Jr., and the executive committee have set an ambitious growth goal for the firm: sustainable, double-digit, profitable growth every year.They believe that distinctive value propositions are crucial to support the growth initiative https://barrykang.com/case-study/how-to-order-an-environmental-studies-case-study-junior-rewriting-premium 2017-12-15 daily 0.9 0.9 https://barrykang.com/homework/best-website-to-order-a-college-human-resources-management-hrm-homework-140-pages-38500-words-freshman-business 2017-12-15 daily 0.9 .They believe that distinctive value propositions are crucial to support the growth initiative.At Sonoco, each value proposition must be: Distinctive.It must be superior to those of Sonoco’s competition.
All value propositions should be based on tangible points of difference that can be quantified in monetary terms.Sonoco must be able to execute this value proposition for a significant period of time.Unit managers know how critical DVPs are to business unit performance because they are one of the ten key metrics on the managers’ performance scorecard.
In senior management reviews, each unit manager presents proposed value propositions for each target market segment or key customer, or both.The managers then receive summary feedback on the value proposition metric (as well as on each of the nine other performance metrics) in terms of whether their proposals can lead to profitable growth.This article also appears in: In addition, Sonoco senior management tracks the relationship between business unit value propositions and business unit performance—and, year after year, has concluded that the emphasis on DVPs has made a significant contribution toward sustainable, double-digit, profitable growth.Best-practice suppliers recognize that constructing and substantiating resonating focus value propositions is not a onetime undertaking, so they make sure their people know how to identify what the next value propositions ought to be.Quaker Chemical, for example, conducts a value-proposition training program each year for its chemical program managers, who work on-site with customers and have responsibility for formulating and executing customer value propositions.
These managers first review case studies from a variety of industries Quaker serves, where their peers have executed savings projects and quantified the monetary savings produced.Competing in teams, the managers then participate in a simulation where they interview “customer managers” to gather information needed to devise a proposal for a customer value proposition.The team that is judged to have the best proposal earns “bragging rights,” which are highly valued in Quaker’s competitive culture.The training program, Quaker believes, helps sharpen the skills of chemical program managers to identify savings projects when they return to the customers they are serving.Best-practice suppliers make sure their people know how to identify what the next value propositions ought to be.
As the final part of the training program, Quaker stages an annual real-world contest where the chemical program managers have 90 days to submit a proposal for a savings project that they plan to present to their customers.The director of chemical management judges these proposals and provides feedback.If he deems a proposed project to be viable, he awards the manager with a gift certificate.Implementing these projects goes toward fulfilling Quaker’s guaranteed annual savings commitments of, on average, $5 million to $6 million a year per customer.Each of these businesses has made customer value propositions a fundamental part of its business strategy.
Drawing on best practices, we have presented an approach to customer value propositions that businesses can implement to communicate, with resonating focus, the superior value their offerings provide to target market segments and customers.Customer value propositions can be a guiding beacon as well as the cornerstone for superior business performance.Thus, it is the responsibility of senior management and general management, not just marketing management, to ensure that their customer value propositions are just that.A version of this article appeared in the March 2006 issue of Harvard Business Review.Ford Professor of Marketing and Wholesale Distribution at Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management.Narus is a professor of business marketing at Wake Forest University.Wouter Van Rossum is a professor of commercial and strategic management at the School of Business, Public Administration, and Technology at the University of Twente.
This article is about MARKETING The Big Idea: The New M&A Playbook Reprint: R1103B Companies spend more than $2 trillion on acquisitions every year, yet the M&A failure rate is between 70% and 90%.Executives can dramatically increase their odds of success, the authors argue, if they understand how to select targets, how much to pay for them, and whether and how to integrate them.The most common reasons for making an acquisition include holding on to a premium position or cutting costs.But to realize those benefits, the acquirer needs to achieve economies of scale by absorbing the target’s resources into its operations.CEOs, who are often unrealistic about the performance boost from such acquisitions, must be sure not to pay too much for them.
A less-familiar reason for making an acquisition is to fundamentally change a company’s growth trajectory.In those deals, the acquirer uses the target’s business model as a platform for growth.Because the business models with the most transformative potential are often disruptive, they can be difficult to evaluate, and CEOs often believe that such acquisitions are overpriced.In fact, however, those are the ones that can pay off spectacularly.
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When a CEO wants to boost corporate performance or jump-start long-term growth, the thought of acquiring another company can be extraordinarily seductive.Indeed, companies spend more than $2 trillion on acquisitions every year.Yet study after study puts the failure rate of mergers and acquisitions somewhere between 70% and 90%.A lot of researchers have tried to explain those abysmal statistics, usually by analyzing the attributes of deals that worked and those that didn’t.What’s lacking, we believe, is a robust theory that identifies the causes of those successes and failures.
In a nutshell, it is this: So many acquisitions fall short of expectations because executives incorrectly match candidates to the strategic purpose of the deal, failing to distinguish between deals that might improve current operations and those that could dramatically transform the company’s growth prospects.As a result, companies too often pay the wrong price and integrate the acquisition in the wrong way.To state that theory less formally, there are two reasons to acquire a company, which executives often confuse.The first, most common one is to boost your company’s current performance—to help you hold on to a premium position, on the one hand, or to cut costs, on the other.
An acquisition that delivers those benefits almost never changes the company’s trajectory, in large part because investors anticipate and therefore discount the performance improvements.For this kind of deal, CEOs are often unrealistic about how much of a boost to expect, pay too much for the acquisition, and don’t understand how to integrate it.The second, less familiar reason to acquire a company is to reinvent your business model and thereby fundamentally redirect your company.Almost nobody understands how to identify the best targets to achieve that goal, how much to pay for them, and how or whether to integrate them.Yet they are the ones most likely to confound investors and pay off spectacularly.
Almost nobody understands how to identify targets that could transform a company, how much to pay for them, and how to integrate them.In this article, we explore the implications of our theory in order to better guide executives in selecting, pricing, and integrating acquisitions and thus dramatically increase their success rate.The first step is to understand at a very basic level what it means for one company to buy another.What Are We Acquiring? The success or failure of an acquisition lies in the nuts and bolts of integration.To foresee how integration will play out, we must be able to describe exactly what we are buying.
The best way to do that, we’ve found, is to think of the target in terms of its business model.As we define it, a business model consists of four interdependent elements that create and deliver value.The first is the customer value proposition: an offering that helps customers do an important job more effectively, conveniently, or affordably than the alternatives.The second element is the profit formula, made up of a revenue model and a cost structure that specify how the company generates profit and the cash required to sustain operations.The third element is the resources—such as employees, customers, technology, products, facilities, and cash—companies use to deliver the customer value proposition.
The fourth is processes such as manufacturing, R&D, budgeting, and sales.
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(For more on this business model construct, see Mark W.Christensen, and Henning Kagermann, “Reinventing Your Business Model,” HBR December 2008.) Under the right circumstances, one of those elements—resources—can be extracted from an acquired company and plugged into the parent’s business model Best website to buy a asian literature powerpoint presentation US Letter Size 1 hour Academic Standard.
) Under the right circumstances, one of those elements—resources—can be extracted from an acquired company and plugged into the parent’s business model.
That’s because resources exist apart from the company (the firm could disappear tomorrow, but its resources would still exist).We call such deals “leverage my business model” (LBM) acquisitions 6 days ago - Iccpr summary powerpoint presentation first page how to write an anthropological research paper. Proposal essay harvard business school cover letter template sample prep school application essays statistics homework help services. Phd thesis in industrial engineering how to avoid i in essays .We call such deals “leverage my business model” (LBM) acquisitions.This article also appears in: A company can’t, however, routinely plug other elements of an acquisition’s business model into its own, or vice versa 6 days ago - Iccpr summary powerpoint presentation first page how to write an anthropological research paper. Proposal essay harvard business school cover letter template sample prep school application essays statistics homework help services. Phd thesis in industrial engineering how to avoid i in essays .This article also appears in: A company can’t, however, routinely plug other elements of an acquisition’s business model into its own, or vice versa.Profit formulas and processes don’t exist apart from the organization, and they rarely survive its dissolution.But a company can buy another firm’s business model, operate it separately, and use it as a platform for transformative growth.
We call that a “reinvent my business model” (RBM) acquisition.As we shall see, there is far more growth potential in purchasing other companies’ business models than in purchasing their resources.Executives often believe they can achieve extraordinary returns by acquiring another firm’s resources and so pay far too much.Alternatively, they walk away from potentially transformative deals in the mistaken belief that the acquisition is overpriced, or they destroy the value of a high-growth business model by trying to integrate it into their own.To understand why these mistakes are so common and how to avoid them, let’s explore in more detail how acquisitions can achieve the two goals mentioned earlier: improving current performance Boosting Current Performance A general manager’s first task is to deliver the short-term results investors expect through the effective operation of the business.
Investors rarely reward managers for those results, but they punish stock values ruthlessly if management falls short.So companies turn to LBM acquisitions to improve the output of their profit formulas.A successful LBM acquisition enables the parent either to command higher prices or to reduce costs.That sounds simple enough, but the conditions under which an acquisition’s resources can help a company accomplish either goal are remarkably specific.Acquiring resources to command premium prices.
The surest way to command a price premium is to improve a product or service that’s still developing—in other words, one whose customers are willing to pay for better functionality.Companies routinely do this by purchasing improved components that are compatible with their own products.If such components are not available, then acquiring the needed technology and talent—usually in the form of intellectual property and the scientists and engineers who are creating it—can be a faster route to product improvement than internal development.Apple’s $278 million purchase of chip designer P.
Semi in 2008 is an example of just such an acquisition.Apple historically had procured its microprocessors from independent suppliers.But as competition with other mobile-device makers increased the competitive importance of battery life, it became difficult to optimize power consumption unless the processors were designed specifically for Apple’s products.This meant that to sustain its price premium, Apple needed to purchase the technology and talent to develop an in-house chip design capability—a move that made perfect sense.A Word About Conglomeration There is one category of deal making not addressed here:acquisitions that build or optimize the parent company’s portfolio of businesses.
Leveraged buyouts by private equity firms are the most prominent example of this kind of deal.Although many LBO firms try to add value to their portfolio companies through operational improvements, much of the actual value to the acquirer is created by the use of leverage and the accompanying tax shield.These deals more closely resemble a stock purchase than a strategic acquisition.Other investors, such as Warren Buffett of Berkshire Hathaway and Ian Cumming of Leucadia National, purchase businesses for similar reasons, albeit with much less leverage.Large conglomerate acquisitions are sometimes made to diversify the parent’s portfolio rather than for strategic fit with its current businesses.
GE’s acquisition of NBC arguably fits this description.We do not question the value of such acquisitions, which can be considerable.But they are not the kind that can have a direct and transformative impact on a company’s business model.Cisco has relied on acquisitions for similar reasons.Because its proprietary product architectures continue to push the leading edge of performance, the company has acquired small high-tech firms and plugged their technologies and engineers into its product development process.
(See the sidebar “ Can This Acquisition Help You Command Premium Prices?”) Acquiring resources to lower costs.When announcing an acquisition, executives nearly always promise that it will lower costs.In reality, a resource acquisition accomplishes that in only a few scenarios—generally, when the acquiring company has high fixed costs, which allow it to scale up profitably.Whether they are called “roll ups,” “consolidation of shrinking industries,” or “natural resource transactions,” these deals all succeed in the same way: The parent plugs certain resources from the acquisition into its existing model, jettisoning the rest of the acquired model and shutting down, laying off, or selling redundant resources.The performance boost results from using the target’s resources in such a way that scale economics can drive down costs.
Can This Acquisition Help You Command Premium Prices? What are the critical measures of performance that customers value in your product (speed, durability, functionality)? Would most customers be willing to pay more if you improved the product on those measures? (Do they value the extra speed, longevity, or functionality enough to pay more for it?) Can the resources of the acquired company substantially improve your product in ways that customers would pay more for? Here’s a simple example: Many New England homes are heated with oil in the winter.Oil retailers typically make monthly deliveries.If one retailer buys a competitor that operates in the same neighborhoods, the parent is essentially buying the competitor’s customers and can eliminate the duplicate fixed costs of two trucks that serve neighboring customers.Here the critical acquired resource is not the trucks or drivers, which the company does not need to serve the new customers; it is the customers themselves, and they are plug-compatible with the parent’s resources, processes, and profit formula.That’s why the deal will lower the acquirer’s costs.
But if the heating oil company purchased a similar firm in a different city, the acquisition would replicate the parent’s cost position in a new geographic area, not reduce it in either one.There might be some overhead efficiencies, but costs would be lowered far less than in the previous example because the oil retailer would need the acquired company’s trucks to service its new customers.One sees scale-enhancing resource acquisitions like the same-neighborhood oil company deal when a pharmaceutical company acquires another so that it can carry the acquired products through its high-fixed-cost sales channel, or when ArcelorMittal buys competing steel companies, transfers production to utilize excess capacity in its most-efficient mills, and then shuts down redundant mills.Oil and natural gas company Anadarko’s 2006 acquisition of Kerr-McGee followed the same pattern.What made Kerr-McGee attractive was the adjacency of its oil fields to Anadarko’s.
The combined firm could operate those fields with the same network of pipelines, support ships, and other fixed operating assets.Had Kerr-McGee’s fields been in the North Atlantic and Anadarko’s in the Gulf of Mexico, Anadarko would have had to maintain independent fixed-cost networks to support both operations.This would have resulted only in overhead efficiencies and potentially greater managerial complexity.To work out whether a potential resource acquisition will help lower your costs, you must determine whether the acquisition’s resources are compatible with your own and with your processes (see the sidebar “ Can This Acquisition Help You Lower Costs?”) and then determine whether scale increases will actually have the desired effect.Can This Acquisition Help You Lower Costs? Predicting whether the resources of a prospective acquisition will improve the output of your company’s business model, and so lower costs, is mainly a matter of assessing how compatible they are with your company’s resources and processes.
Resources Do its customers buy products like ours, and vice versa? Can the output of the acquisition’s factories be used with minimal adjustment by our supply chain and distributors? Do our salespeople have the skills to sell the acquisition’s products? Will they be excited to sell them? Processes Can my people readily service the acquired customers? Can its products be produced in our factories, and vice versa? Will the quality of its offerings be enhanced by our rules for managing procurement, IT systems, and quality control systems? If the resources of the target are compatible with your resources and processes, the acquisition will most likely improve the resource velocity of your profit formula—that is, there is a good chance it will improve turnover or utilization of assets and fixed costs.For companies in industries where fixed costs represent a large percentage of total costs, increasing scale through acquisitions results in substantial cost savings, in the same way that the oil company could lower its costs by buying a local competitor.But in industries where cost-competitiveness can be reached at relatively low levels of market share, a company growing beyond that does not reduce its cost position but replicates it, as would a heating oil company that purchased customers in a different city.(See the exhibit “When Will Increased Scale Lower Costs?”) In the polyester fabric industry, for example, once a firm is big enough to fully utilize a state-of-the-art air-jet loom, any growth in volume requires the producer to buy another loom.For companies whose cost structures are dominated by variable costs, resource acquisitions typically yield only minimal improvements to the profit formula.
Similarly, the benefits of scale are most substantial in operating categories that have a high percentage of fixed costs, such as manufacturing, distribution, and sales.Acquisitions that are justified by economies of scale in administrative costs such as purchasing, human resources, or legal services often have disappointing effects on the profit formula.When the New York Timesacquired the Boston Globe, for example, there were few operating synergies (reporters and printing were by necessity separate).The administrative overlaps in areas like HR and finance were not enough to make this a good deal.As a general rule, the impact of an LBM acquisition on the acquirer’s share price will be apparent within one year, because the market understands the full potential of both businesses before the acquisition and has had enough time to assess the outcome of the integration and any synergies that may arise.
Investors are often much less optimistic than CEOs about LBM deals, and history generally proves them right: The best-case result is a jump in share price to a new plateau.
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Some managers hold out hope that LBM acquisitions can unlock unexpected growth, but as we will see, they are likely to be disappointed.Some managers hold out hope that buying another company for its resources can unlock unexpected growth, but they are likely to be disappointed.A word of warning is in order for companies seeking to boost current performance through LBM deals aimed at acquiring new customers: All the successful examples we’ve identified involve selling “acquired” customers the products they were already buying Premium essay writing services - top mba assignment help. Mba for a physician academic essay write my essay i. Myessayreview - essay review and consultation help with cover letter for administrative assistant service. Mba purpose essays - belgium 4x4 forum. 65 successful harvard business school application essays..
A word of warning is in order for companies seeking to boost current performance through LBM deals aimed at acquiring new customers: All the successful examples we’ve identified involve selling “acquired” customers the products they were already buying.
Acquisitions made for the purpose of cross-selling products succeed only occasionally.Why? Let’s say Clayton Christensen is a typical shopper, who buys both consumer electronics and hardware Asian mail order brides prices,document about asian mail order brides prices,download qualitative research to filter junk e-mail. Search new and used books, textbooks, and ebooks using the most trusted shopping comparison site. Meet russian brides, contact single russian women. Ppt - bipolar disorder essay title tips for .Why? Let’s say Clayton Christensen is a typical shopper, who buys both consumer electronics and hardware.Wouldn’t Walmart, which carries both product categories, have a better chance of winning his business than Best Buy, which sells only consumer electronics, or Home Depot, which sells only hardware? In a word, no Asian mail order brides prices,document about asian mail order brides prices,download qualitative research to filter junk e-mail. Search new and used books, textbooks, and ebooks using the most trusted shopping comparison site. Meet russian brides, contact single russian women. Ppt - bipolar disorder essay title tips for .Wouldn’t Walmart, which carries both product categories, have a better chance of winning his business than Best Buy, which sells only consumer electronics, or Home Depot, which sells only hardware? In a word, no.That’s because Clay needs to buy electronics just before birthdays and holidays, whereas he needs to buy hardware on Saturday mornings, when he intends to repair something at home.Because these two jobs-to-be-done arise at different times, the fact that Walmart can sell him both kinds of products does not give it an advantage over the specialists.
Typical shopper Clay does, however, buy gasoline and junk food at the same time—when he’s on a road trip.Hence, we have seen a convergence of convenience stores and gas stations.In other words, an acquisition whose rationale is to sell a variety of products to new customers will succeed only if customers need to buy those products at the same time and in the same place.More than once, ambitious executives, such as Sanford Weill of Citigroup fame, have assembled “financial supermarkets,” thinking that customers’ needs for credit cards, checking accounts, wealth management services, insurance, and stock brokerage could be furnished most efficiently and effectively by the same company.Those efforts have failed, over and over again.
Cross-selling in circumstances like these will complicate and confuse, and will rarely reduce sales costs.Reinventing Your Business Model The second fundamental task of a general manager is to lay the groundwork for long-term growth by creating new ways of doing business, since the value of existing business models fades as competition and technological progress erode their profit potential.RBM acquisitions help managers tackle that task.Investors’ expectations give executives a strong incentive to embrace the work of reinvention.
As Alfred Rappaport and Michael Mauboussin point out in their book Expectations Investing (Harvard Business Review Press, 2003), managers quickly learn that it is not earnings growth per se that determines growth in their company’s share price—it’s growth relative to investors’ expectations.A firm’s share price represents myriad pieces of information about its predicted performance, synthesized into a single number and discounted into its present value.If managers grow cash flows at the rate the market expects, the firm’s share price will grow only at its cost of capital, because those expectations have already been factored into its current share price.To persistently create shareholder value at a greater rate, managers must do something that investors haven’t already taken into account—and they must do it again and again.Acquiring a disruptive business model.
The most reliable sources of unexpected growth in revenues and margins are disruptive products and business models.Disruptive companies are those whose initial products are simpler and more affordable than the established players’ offerings.They secure their foothold in the low end of the market and then move to higher-performance, higher-margin products, market tier by market tier.Although investment analysts can see a company’s potential in the market tier where it’s currently positioned, they fail to foresee how a disruptor will move upmarket as its offerings improve.So they persistently underestimate the growth potential of disruptive companies.
To understand how that works, consider Nucor, an operator of steel minimills, which back in the 1970s developed a radically simpler and less costly way to make steel than the big integrated steel-makers of the day.Initially, Nucor made only concrete reinforcing bar (rebar), the simplest and lowest-margin of all steel products.Analysts valued Nucor according to the size of the rebar market and the profits Nucor could earn in it.But the pursuit of profit drove Nucor to develop further capabilities, and as it invaded subsequent product tiers, commanding higher and higher margins from its low-cost manufacturing technique, analysts kept having to revisit their estimates of the company’s addressable market—and hence its growth.As a result, Nucor’s share price fairly exploded, as the exhibit “Why Disruptive Businesses Are Worth So Much” demonstrates.
From 1983 to 1994, Nucor’s stock appreciated at a 27% compounded annual rate, as analysts continually realized that they had underestimated the markets the company could address.By 1994, Nucor was in the top market tier, and analysts caught up with its growth potential.Even though sales continued to increase handsomely, that accurate understanding, or “discountability,” caused Nucor’s share price to level off.If executives had wanted the company’s share price to keep appreciating at rates in excess of analysts’ expectations, they would have had to continue to create or acquire disruptive businesses.A company that acquires a disruptive business model can achieve spectacular results.
Take, for example, information technology giant EMC’s acquisition of VMware, whose software enabled IT departments to run multiple “virtual servers” on a single machine, replacing server vendors’ pricey hardware solution with a lower-cost software one.Although this offering was disruptive to server vendors, it was complementary to EMC, giving the storage hardware vendor greater reach into its customers’ data rooms.When EMC acquired VMware, for $635 million in cash, VMware’s revenues were just $218 million.With a disruptive wind at its back, VMware’s growth exploded: Annual revenues reached $2.Currently, EMC’s stake in VMware is worth more than $28 billion, a stunning 44-fold increase of its initial investment.Johnson & Johnson’s Medical Devices & Diagnostics division provides another example of how reinventing a business model through acquisition can boost growth from average to exceptional.From 1992 through 2001, the division’s portfolio of products performed adequately, growing revenues at an annual rate of 3%.But during the same period, the division acquired four small but disruptive business models that ignited outsize growth.Together these RBM acquisitions grew 41% annually over this period, fundamentally changing the division’s growth trajectory.
(See the sidebar “ Can This Acquisition Change Your Company’s Growth Trajectory?”) Can This Acquisition Change Your Company’s Growth Trajectory? Is the acquired company’s product or service simpler and more affordable than the established players’ offerings? Do this simplicity and affordability enable more people to own and use the product or service? Is it good enough to suit the needs of a variety of customers? Can the acquired company’s business model scale upmarket to yield a stream of progressively higher-capability products and services? Do established players find the company’s offering profitable enough to replicate, or is the company playing in low-end markets that incumbents are content to ignore? Does the acquired company reposition you to capture the most attractive (future) profits in the industry’s value chain? Acquiring to decommoditize.One of the most effective ways to use RBM acquisitions is as a defense against commoditization.As we have described previously in this magazine, the dynamics of commoditization tend to follow a predictable pattern (see Clayton M.Christensen, Michael Raynor, and Matt Verlinden, “Skate to Where the Money Will Be,” HBR November 2001).
Over time, the most profitable point in the value chain shifts as proprietary, integrated offerings metamorphose into modular, undifferentiated ones.
The innovative companies supplying the components start to capture the most attractive margins in the chain.If a firm finds itself being commoditized in this way, acquisitions won’t improve the output of its profit formula.Firms in this situation should instead migrate to “where the profits will be”—the point in the value chain that will capture the best margins in the future.Right now, the business models of major pharmaceutical companies are floundering for a host of reasons, including their inability to fill new-product pipelines and the obsolescence of the direct-to-doctor sales model.
Industry leaders like Pfizer, GSK, and Merck have tried to boost the output of their troubled business models by buying and integrating the products and pipeline resources of competing drugmakers.But in the wake of such acquisitions, Pfizer’s share price plummeted 40%.A far better strategy would be to focus on the place in the value chain that is becoming decommoditized: the management of clinical trials, which are now an integral part of the drug research process and so a critical capability for pharmaceutical companies.Despite this, most drugmakers have been outsourcing their clinical trials to contract research organizations such as Covance and Quintiles, better positioning those companies in the value chain.Acquiring those organizations, or a disruptive drugmaker like Dr.
Reddy’s Laboratories, would help reinvent big pharma’s collapsing business model.Paying the Right Price Given our assertion that RBM acquisitions most effectively raise the rate of value creation for shareholders, it’s ironic that acquirers typically underpay for those acquisitions and overpay for LBM ones.The stacks of M&A literature are littered with warnings about paying too much, and for good reason.Many an executive has been caught up in deal fever and paid more for an LBM deal than could be justified by cost synergies.For that kind of deal, it’s crucial to determine the target’s worth by calculating the impact on profits from the acquisition.
If an acquirer pays less than that, the stock price will increase, but only to a slightly higher plateau, with a gentle upward slope representing the company’s weighted-average cost of capital, which for most firms is about 8%.In contrast, consider the exhibit “How the Market Rewards Disruptors,” which charts the average earnings multiple of 37 companies we’ve determined to be disruptive in the 10 years after they went public.Annual P/E ratios for this group are far higher than historical levels, leading analysts to believe their shares were overpriced.
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Yet investors who purchased at the time of the IPO and held the stock for 10 years realized an astounding 46% annual return, indicating that the shares were persistently underpriced, even at these “high” multiples.Find this and other HBR graphics in our Visual Library Analysts charged with determining the right price for a company’s shares work hard to find appropriate comparables.
For LBM acquisitions, the correct comparables are companies that make similar products in similar industries Best Buy Powerpoint Presentation Template Academic Writing nbsp.For LBM acquisitions, the correct comparables are companies that make similar products in similar industries.
For RBM acquisitions, however, such comparables make disruptive companies seem overpriced, deterring companies from pursuing the very acquisitions they need for reinvention.In reality, the right comparables for disruptive companies are other disruptors, regardless of industry The first, most common one is to boost your company's current performance—to help you hold on to a premium position, on the one hand, or to cut costs, on the other. Almost nobody understands how to identify the best targets to achieve that goal, how much to pay for them, and how or whether to integrate them. Yet they .In reality, the right comparables for disruptive companies are other disruptors, regardless of industry.Ultimately, the “right” price for an acquisition is not something that can be set by the seller, far less by an investment banker looking to sell to the highest bidder The first, most common one is to boost your company's current performance—to help you hold on to a premium position, on the one hand, or to cut costs, on the other. Almost nobody understands how to identify the best targets to achieve that goal, how much to pay for them, and how or whether to integrate them. Yet they .Ultimately, the “right” price for an acquisition is not something that can be set by the seller, far less by an investment banker looking to sell to the highest bidder.The right price can be determined only by the buyer, since it depends on what purpose the acquisition will serve.
Avoiding Integration Mistakes Your approach to integration should be determined almost entirely by the type of acquisition you’ve made.If you buy another company for the purpose of improving your current business model’s effectiveness, you should generally dissolve the acquired model as its resources are folded into your operations.That’s what Cisco does with the great majority of its technology acquisitions.(There are certainly exceptions: An acquired process, for instance, is sometimes so valuable or distinct that it substitutes for or is added to the acquirer’s.) But if you buy a company for its business model, it’s important to keep the model intact, most commonly by operating it separately.
That’s what Best Buy did with Geek Squad, running its high-touch, higher-cost service model as a separate business alongside its low-margin, low-touch retail operation.Likewise, VMware’s server-focused business model was distinct enough from EMC’s storage model that EMC chose not to integrate VMware very closely.EMC’s original business model continued to perform well, but the addition of VMware’s disruptive business model allowed EMC to grow at an exceptional rate.Failing to understand where the value resides in what’s been bought, and therefore integrating incorrectly, has caused some of the biggest disasters in acquisitions history.Daimler’s 1998 acquisition of Chrysler for $36 billion is a quintessential example.
Although the purchase of one car company by another looks like a classic resource acquisition, that was a fatal way to look at it.From about 1988 to 1998, Chrysler had aggressively modularized its products, outsourcing the subsystems from which its cars could be assembled to its tier-one suppliers.This so simplified its design processes that Chrysler could cut its design cycle from five years to two (compared with about six years at Daimler) and could design a car at one-fifth the overhead cost that Daimler required.As a result, during this period Chrysler introduced a series of very popular models and gained nearly a point of market share every year.When Daimler folded Chrysler’s resources into its operations, the real value of the acquisition disappeared.
When Daimler’s acquisition of Chrysler was announced, analysts began the “synergies” drumbeat—and Daimler responded that integrating the companies would strip out $8 billion in “redundant” costs.But when Daimler folded Chrysler’s resources (brands, dealers, factories, and technology) into its operations, the real value of the acquisition (Chrysler’s speedy processes and lean profit formula) disappeared, and with it the basis for Chrysler’s success.Daimler would have done far better to preserve Chrysler’s business model as a separate entity.Companies rightly turn to acquisitions to meet goals they can’t achieve internally.But there is no magic in buying another company.
Companies can make acquisitions that allow them to command higher prices, but only in the same way they could have raised prices all along—by improving products that are not yet good enough for the majority of their customers.Similarly, they can make acquisitions to cut costs by using excess capacity in their resources and processes to serve new customers—but again, only in the same way they could have by finding new customers on their own.And companies can acquire new business models to serve as platforms for transformative growth—just as they could if they developed new business models in-house.At the end of the day, the decision to acquire is a question of whether it is faster and more economical to buy something that you could, given enough time and resources, make yourself.
Every day, the wrong companies are purchased for the wrong purpose, the wrong measures of value are applied in pricing the deals, and the wrong elements are integrated into the wrong business models.
Sounds like a mess—and it has been a mess.We hope that the next time an investment banker knocks on your door with a guaranteed fee for himself and the acquisition of a lifetime for you, you’ll be able to predict with greater accuracy whether the company on offer is a dream deal or a debacle.A version of this article appeared in the March 2011 issue of Harvard Business Review.Christensen ([email protected] ) is the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School.Richard Alton ([email protected] ) is a senior researcher at the Forum for Growth and Innovation at Harvard Business School.Curtis Rising ([email protected] ) is the managing director of Harvard Square Partners, a consulting practice focused on inorganic growth and leadership assessment, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.Andrew Waldeck ([email protected] ) is a partner at Innosight, an innovation and strategy consulting firm in Watertown, Massachusetts.School of business and management phd and mres study 2017 Close The classic counterpart to a CV, cover letters are standard in almost all job ic cover letters are typically allowed to be longer than in other sectors, but this latitude comes with its own pitfalls.
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" In my experience, this type of sentence is all too is this person? What do they really do? If I'm asking myself these questions after more than a few lines of your cover letter, then you've already fallen into the trap of being beige and forgettable best websites to buy an photography term paper Ph.Premium 51 pages / 14025 is this person? What do they really do? If I'm asking myself these questions after more than a few lines of your cover letter, then you've already fallen into the trap of being beige and get shortlisted, you need to stand opening paragraph should answer the following questions: What is your current job and affiliation? What's your research field, and what's your main contribution to it? What makes you most suitable for this post? 2) Evidence, evidence, evidence It's generally accepted that, in job applications, we need to 'sell' ourselves, but how to do this can be a source of real anxiety.Where's the line between assertiveness, modesty and arrogance? The best way to guard against self-aggrandisement or self-abnegation is to focus on example, "I am internationally recognised as an expert in my field" is arrogant, because you are making a bold claim and asking me to trust your account of contrast, "I was invited to deliver a keynote talk at top international conference " is tangible and you can produce facts and figures to strengthen your evidence, then your letter will have even more impact, for example "I created three protocols which improved reliability by N%.These protocols are now embedded in my group's experiments and are also being used by ABC".
Remember that your readers need you to be distinctive and cite the job description back at the they have asked for excellent communication skills, you're going to need to do better than merely including the sentence "I have excellent communication skills.Who can help me write my recreation studies research proposal professional american standard double spaced a4 (british/european) " What is your evidence for this claim? 3) It's not an encyclopaedia Because everything you say must be supported with evidence, you can't include everything.I find that many people are prone to an encyclopaedic fervour in their cover letters: they slavishly address each line of the job description, mention every single side project which they have on the go, every book chapter and review article they've ever written, and so on.Letters like this just end up being plaintive, excessively tedious, and ineffective Every essay writing service is striving to be on top.They go ahead to convince their customers from all over.
But only one and genuine thing speaks for the service: quality and reliable.If a service thinks it can convince customers through mere words then it's wrong.Top essay writing services are identified by their s like this just end up being plaintive, excessively tedious, and ineffective.Instead, show that you can distinguish your key achievements ( publications, grants won, invited talks) from the purely nice-to-have stuff (eg Current PhD Research Topics University of publications, grants won, invited talks) from the purely nice-to-have stuff ( r series organised, review articles, edited collections) Current PhD Research Topics University of r series organised, review articles, edited collections).Put your highlights and best evidence in the letter – leave the rest to the CV.
4) Think holistically There's no need to try to make each application document do all the work for there's a research proposal, why agonise over a lengthy paraphrase of the proposal in the cover letter? If there's a teaching statement, why write three more teaching paragraphs in your letter as well? Give me a quick snapshot and signpost where the rest of the information can be found, for example: "My next project will achieve X by doing Y.Further details, including funding and publication plans related to the project, are included in my research proposal." 5) Two sides are more than enough There is no reason why your cover letter should need to go beyond two fact, I've seen plenty of people get shortlisted for fellowships and lectureships using a cover letter that fitted on to a single side of can be done – without shrinking the font and reducing the margins, neither of which, I'm sorry to break it to you, is an acceptable s, please have some sympathy for your readers: they have jobs to do and lives to lead; they will appreciate pith.6) Writing about your research: why, not what In almost every conceivable kind of academic application, fellowships included, it's very high risk to write about your research in such a way that it can only be understood by an expert in your field.It's far safer to pitch your letter so that it's comprehensible to a broader need to show a draft of your letter to at least one person who, as a minimum requirement, is outside your immediate group or they understand your research? Crucially, do they understand its significance? Before the selectors can care about the details of what you do, you have to hook their interest with why you do it.
Best websites to order a college research proposal recreation studies 5 days us letter size custom writing 97 pages / 26675 words Bad: "I work on the lived experiences of LGB people in contemporary Britain why? .I look particularly at secondary school children why? , and I use mixed methods to describe their experiences of homophobic bullying vague .My PhD is the first full-length study of this topic so what? Contact Me The Professor Is PhD is the first full-length study of this topic so what? ." Better: "In recent years, significant progress has been made towards equality for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people living in r, young people aged 11-19 who self-identify as LGB are more likely to experience verbal and physical bullying, and they are at significantly greater risk of self-harm and my dissertation, I conduct an ethnographic study of a large metropolitan secondary school, in order to identify the factors which lead to homophobic bullying, as well as policies and initiatives which LGB young people find effective in dealing with it 8.26my research interests and my PhD research proposal.
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Another important factor was also that QMUL offered PhD Studentships with a living allowance, without which.In my dissertation, I conduct an ethnographic study of a large metropolitan secondary school, in order to identify the factors which lead to homophobic bullying, as well as policies and initiatives which LGB young people find effective in dealing with it." 7) Mind the gap Be aware that "nobody has studied this topic before" is a very weak justification for a project Best website to buy custom powerpoint presentation asian literature Proofreading US Letter Size 43 pages / 11825 words single spaced." 7) Mind the gap Be aware that "nobody has studied this topic before" is a very weak justification for a project.
Nature may abhor a vacuum, but academia does not who can do an ecology laboratory report Standard 5 days A4 (British/European).Nature may abhor a vacuum, but academia does it even matter that no previous scholarship exists on this precise topic? Perhaps it never merited all that money and are we unable to do because of this gap? What have we been getting wrong until now? What will we be able to do differently once your project has filled this void? 8) Writing about teaching: avoid list-making Avoid the temptation of list-making here, don't need to itemise each course you have taught, because I've already read this on your CV, and there's no need to detail every module you would teach at the new rly, you don't need to quote extensively from student feedback in order to show that you're a great teacher; this smacks of desperation 21 Oct 2016 - For the purpose of this article, we define sustainable practices as those that: 1) at minimum do not harm people or the planet and at best create value for stakeholders and 2) focus on improving environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance in the areas in which the company or brand has a .
Nature may abhor a vacuum, but academia does it even matter that no previous scholarship exists on this precise topic? Perhaps it never merited all that money and are we unable to do because of this gap? What have we been getting wrong until now? What will we be able to do differently once your project has filled this void? 8) Writing about teaching: avoid list-making Avoid the temptation of list-making here, don't need to itemise each course you have taught, because I've already read this on your CV, and there's no need to detail every module you would teach at the new rly, you don't need to quote extensively from student feedback in order to show that you're a great teacher; this smacks of desperation.
A few examples of relevant teaching and the names of some courses you would be prepared to teach will should also give me an insight into your philosophy of do students get out of your courses? What strategies do you use in your teaching, and why are they effective? 9) Be specific about the department When explaining why you want to join the department, look out for well-intentioned but empty statements which could apply to pretty much any higher education institution in the example, "I would be delighted to join the department of X, with its world-leading research and teaching, and I see this as the perfect place to develop my your research skills, use the internet judiciously, and identify some there initiatives in the department to which you could contribute, e.Ms and ph d defenses graduate studies georgia institute of nbsp research clusters, seminar series, outreach events? What about potential collaborators (remembering to say what's in it for them)? What about interdisciplinary links to other departments in the institution? 10) Be yourself It often feels like slim pickings when you're job hunting, and many people feel compelled to apply for pretty much any role which comes up in their area, even if it's not a great fit freeandroidgaming.com/research-paper/should-i-buy-a-college-transportation-law-research-paper-business-formatting-7-days-professional.Ms and ph d defenses graduate studies georgia institute of nbsp research clusters, seminar series, outreach events? What about potential collaborators (remembering to say what's in it for them)? What about interdisciplinary links to other departments in the institution? 10) Be yourself It often feels like slim pickings when you're job hunting, and many people feel compelled to apply for pretty much any role which comes up in their area, even if it's not a great fit.But you still need to make the most of who you are, rather than refashioning yourself into an approximation of what you think the selectors want.If you have a strong track record in quantitative research and you've spotted a job in a department leaning more towards qualitative methods, you might still decide to apply, but there's no point in trying to sell yourself as what you're not These have been the pillar of various studies but none have managed to look at the data from tombs of different periods on Malta in a holistic manner.This has resulted in the different periods of sepulchral archaeology being studied in almost complete isolation from one another.
My doctoral research aims to interrogate the.If you have a strong track record in quantitative research and you've spotted a job in a department leaning more towards qualitative methods, you might still decide to apply, but there's no point in trying to sell yourself as what you're not.They'll see through it, and you'll have downplayed your genuine successes for no d, make a case for why your achievements should be of interest to the department, for example by demonstrating how statistics would complement their qualitative work College Application Essay Service 300 Word Order Academic Papers d, make a case for why your achievements should be of interest to the department, for example by demonstrating how statistics would complement their qualitative the end of the day, the best way to get shortlisted is to highlight bona fide achievements that are distinctive to you.8 per page Available! Order now! Sponsorship speech sample how to write a research abstract apprentice electrician and sensibility chapter 2 summary advantages and disadvantages of solar energy essay the two main categories of essays are college application essay service myers mcginty my grandfather passed away e application essay service 300 word marketing assistant al thinking book one anita harnadek commercial presentation proof fence summary essay thesis statement for basketball how to introduce your essay how long is a literature review for a iption drug abuse research paper thesis essay related to insurance aluminum installer sample resume vietnam war research papers mba admission essay services ty resume objective examples our digital world essay how to write a 5th grade book report retirement benefits analyst resume nurse cv e application essay service 300 word how to give a formal presentation tqm thesis topics thesis statement on diversity regional sales director resume summer 2013 movie review critical essay on romeo and undergraduate thesis recommendation letter for radiology case study fsu application essay global awareness.Feedback on presentation examples lohri festival essay service essay nhs research proposal for grant sample.
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