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This guide provides a basic introduction to the APA citation style.It is based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published in 2010 (2009).
Copies of the manual are available at the Vanier and Webster Libraries' Reference Desks, Reference Collections and on 3-hour Reserve These guidelines will help you to cite your research sources according to the APA style. Included are examples of both The references list is double-spaced within AND between citation entries. • Use the hanging indent format: Ivey Publishing. In-text citation examples – Ivey Business School Case Study. One author:..Copies of the manual are available at the Vanier and Webster Libraries' Reference Desks, Reference Collections and on 3-hour Reserve.
The call number for the manual is BF 76.The Publication Manual is generally used for academic writing in the social sciences APA STYLE GUIDE. FOR BUSINESS SOURCES. BCIT Library Services bcit.ca/library. Updated October 2017 Quotations that are longer than 40 words should be displayed in a freestanding double-spaced block of text without quotation OR: A recent work (Stanwick & Stanwick, 2009), discussed ethical business issues..The Publication Manual is generally used for academic writing in the social sciences.The manual itself covers many aspects of research writing including selecting a topic, evaluating sources, taking notes, plagiarism, the mechanics of writing, the format of the research paper as well as the way to cite sources.
Another useful resource is the Smith (1997) compared reaction times.Within a paragraph, you need not include the year in subsequent references freeandroidgaming.com/dissertation/antique-literature.php.Within a paragraph, you need not include the year in subsequent references.Two authors James and Ryerson (1999) demonstrated.
has been shown (James & Ryerson, 1999).3 - 5 authors If there are three to five authors, cite all authors the first time; in subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author followed by "et al." and the year: Williams, Jones, Smith, Bradner, and Torrington (1983) found.Corporate authors The names of groups that serve as authors (e.corporations, associations, government agencies, and study groups) are usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation.If it will not cause confusion for the reader, names may be abbreviated thereafter: First citation: (National Institute of Mental Health NIMH , 1999) Subsequent citations: (NIMH, 1999) Citing specific parts (pages, sections, & paragraphs) To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table or equation at the appropriate point in the text: (Czapiewski & Ruby, 1995, p.10) (Wilmarth, 1980, Chapter 3) For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number, if available, preceded by the ¶ symbol or abbreviation para.
If neither is visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the quoted material.(Myers, 2000, ¶ 5) (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para.1) For electronic sources such as Web pages, provide a reference to the author, the year and the page number (if it is a PDF document), the paragraph number if visible or a heading followed by the paragraph number."The current system of managed care and the current approach to defining empirically supported treatments are shortsighted" (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, ¶ 1) Indirect citations When citing a work which is discussed in another work, include the original author's name in an explanatory sentence, and then include the source you actually consulted in your parenthetical reference and in your reference list.(as cited in Andrews, 2007) Quotations Direct quotations of sources Direct quotations allow you to acknowledge a source within your text by providing a reference to exactly where in that source you found the information.The reader can then follow up on the complete reference in the Reference List page at the end of your paper.Short direct quotations Quotations of less than 40 words should be incorporated in the text and enclosed with double quotation marks.Provide the author, publication year and a page number.She stated, "The 'placebo effect,' eared when behaviors were studied in this manner" (Miele, 1993, p.
276), but he did not clarify which behaviors were studied.Miele (1993) found that "the 'placebo effect,' which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when only the first group's behaviors were studied in this manner" (p.Long direct quotations When making a quotation of more than 40 words, use a free-standing "block quotation" on a new line, indented five spaces and omit quotation marks.Miele (1993) found the following: The "placebo effect," which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner.
Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited, even when reel sic drugs were administered.Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect.276) Further examples and explanations are available in Section 6.Reference list - overview The alphabetical list of references that appears at the end of your paper contains more information about all of the sources you have used allowing readers to refer to them, as needed.The main characteristics are: The list of references must be on a new page at the end of your text The word References should be centered at the top of the page Entries are arranged alphabetically by the author's last name or by the title if there is no author Titles of larger works (i.
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books, journals, encyclopedias) are italicized Entries are double-spaced (for the purposes of this handout, single-spacing is used) For each entry, the first line is typed flush with the left margin.Additional lines are indented as a group a few spaces to the right of the left margin (hanging indent) Below are some examples of the most common types of sources including online sources (Web and databases).
Violent video game effects on children and adolescents: Theory, research and public policy .Violent video game effects on children and adolescents: Theory, research and public policy.
0001 Work with two authors Family mediation: Facts, myths, and future prospects.
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association CSU Global Guide to Writing and APA Requirements Blackboard.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Two or more works by the same author Arrange by the year of publication, the earliest first.Amusing ourselves to death: Public discourse in the age of show business.If works by the same author are published in the same year, arrange alphabetically by title and add a letter after the year as indicated below help me with a custom statistics thesis British AMA Academic.If works by the same author are published in the same year, arrange alphabetically by title and add a letter after the year as indicated below.Book by a corporate author Associations, corporations, agencies, government departments and organizations are considered authors when there is no single author American Psychological Association.Anthologies, Coursepacks, & Encyclopedias Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth.Work in an anthology or an essay in a book Bjork, R.Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory.), Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp.), AHSC 230: Interpersonal communication and relationships (pp.
Montreal, Canada: Concordia University Bookstore.(Reprinted from Harvard Business Review, 76(6), pp.Work in a dictionary Indicate whether you are citing a noun, verb, adjective, etc.
, if there are multiple types of the word.The in-text citation would be (Protest, 1971).Article in a reference book or an entry in an encyclopedia If the article/entry is signed, include the author's name; if unsigned, begin with the title of the entry Guignon, C.
), Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy (Vol.Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences.Note: List only the volume number if the periodical uses continuous pagination throughout a particular volume.
If each issue begins with page 1, then list the issue number as well.The ADA and the hiring process in organizations.
Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.Article in a newspaper or magazine Semenak, S.Feeling right at home: Government residence eschews traditional rules.Article from an electronic source Provide the same information as you would for a printed journal article and add a retrieval statement that will identify the source of this information.In general, it is not necessary to include database information (APA, 2010, p.You can identify your source by including ONE of the following: DOI (digital object identifier) A DOI is a standardized method for identifying an electronic object.DOIs often appear in the citation or the abstract of an article or at the top or bottom of the first page of the article.You may find the DOI for your article by using .Television or radio program MacIntyre, L.
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Scandal of the Century Television series episode .Toronto, Canada: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.Film, videorecording or DVD The Shining Motion pictureAPA Style Blog.Film, videorecording or DVD The Shining Motion picture .
YouTube videos (For more information see the APA Style Blog) With author's name and screen name Apsolon, M.Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 Video file .Retrieved from /watch?v=6nyGCbxD848 With only screen name Bellofolletti.Ghost caught on surveillance camera Video file .
Retrieved from /watch?v =Dq1ms2JhYBI&feature=related Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides (such as Moodle) Cress, C.Curricular strategies for student success and engaged learning PowerPoint slides .Retrieved from /2009/TCL post/presenter powerpoints/Christine%20Cress%20-%20Curricular% Web pages NOTE: For more information about electronic sources, please refer to the APA style guide to electronic references (restricted to Concordia users) Web pages & non-periodical documents on the Internet Include the author, title of the document, and if available, always include the date the material was updated or posted online.
If the page may be changed or moved, include the date of retrieval.If there is no author, place the title in the author position.If there is no date, replace the date with (n.) to signify that there is no date for the material.Add a description of the source in square brackets after the title, if this is necessary to clarify the type of source e.Bibliography PowerPoint slides Multimedia presentation Library and Archives Canada.Celebrating women's achievements: Women artists in Canada.Retrieved from /women/ If the source material is likely to change over time (e.Retrieved September 30, 2009, from /wiki/Geography of Canada Further examples and explanations are available in sections 6.32 (electronic sources) and chapter 7 (examples and more information) of the General APA Guidelines Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.You should use a clear font that is highly readable.Include arunning head“) at the top of every page.To create apage header/running head, insert page numbers flush right.Then type “TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” in the header flush left using all capital letters.Therunning head is a shortened version of your paper’s title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.
Major Paper Sections title of the paper, theauthor’s name, and theinstitutional affiliation.Include the page header (described above) flush left with the page number flush right at the top of the page.Please note that on the title page, your page header/running head should look like this: Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER Pages after the title page should have a running head that looks like this: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER After consulting with publication specialists at the APA, OWL staff learned that the APA 6th edition, first printing sample papers haveincorrectexamples of Running heads on pages after the title page.Thislink will take you to the APA site where you can find a complete list of all the errors in the APA’s 6th edition style guide.Type yourtitle in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page.
APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.Your title may take up one or two lines.All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.Beneath the title, type theauthor’s name: first name, middle initial(s), and last name.
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Beneath the author’s name, type theinstitutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.Image Caption: APA Title Page Abstract Begin a new page.Your abstract page should already include thepage header (described above) APA citation style Citing Help how to Concordia University Library.
Your abstract page should already include thepage header (described above).
On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks).
Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions References are double spaced and in hanging indent format and in alphabetical order. For more information and examples, see page 10 of this guide. PoWerPoInt, WebSIteS, buSIneSS-Style letterS/memoS/rePortS. requIrementS: for a sample PowerPoint cited in APA format. • Follow your assignment instructions for these .) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions.You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings freeandroidgaming.com/report/how-to-order-a-chemistry-report-writing-from-scratch-6-hours-academic-cheap.You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings.Your abstract should be a single paragraph double-spaced.
Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract.To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then list your keywords.Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.Image Caption: APA Abstract Page Please see ourSample APA Paper resource to see an example of an APA paper.
You may also visit ourAdditional Resources page for more examples of APA papers.How to Cite the Purdue OWL in APA Individual Resources Contributors’ names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.Retrieved from Web address for OWL resource Angeli, E.
Retrieved from /owl/resource/560/01/ Contributors:Joshua M.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 In-Text Citations: The Basics Reference citations in text are covered on pages 169-179 of the Publication Manual.What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.
Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research, for example, Jones (1998)found or Jones (1998)APA citation basics When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation.This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.If you are referring to an idea from another work butNOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D.
If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change.Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs:Writing New Media, Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized:Writing new media.Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: “Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock’sVertigo.
” Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums:The Closing of the American Mind;The Wizard of Oz;Friends.Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds”; “The One Where Chandler Can’t Cry.” Short quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by “p.
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Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p.Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p business, social work, education, and other behavioral and social sciences. APA values currency of work and thus cites by author(s) and year (as opposed to MLA, which values Your manuscript should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5 X 11 inches) with 1 Citing a PowerPoint presentation..Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p.
199); what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
She stated, “Students often had difficulty using APA style” (Jones, 1998, p.
199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why Although some aspects of a draft manuscript carry over into the typeset version—the reference list follows the same APA Style guidelines, for example—the appearance and composition of the article will change drastically. The font type and size, the margins, and the line spacing are all typically very different after typesetting .199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.Long quotations Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks.Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i ecology.Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.
Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.Jones’s (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources.This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed topurchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help.
199) Summary or paraphrase If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.) According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed.
, 2 In-Text Citations: Author/Authors APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system.There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.Citing an Author or Authors A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work.Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports… (Wegener & Petty, 1994) A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.
Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993) In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses., 1993) et should not be followed by a period.
Six or More Authors: Use the first author’s name followed by et al., 2001) Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses.
Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers (“Using APA,” 2001).Note: In the rare case the “Anonymous” is used for the author, treat it as the author’s name (Anonymous, 2001).
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In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
According to the American Psychological Association (2000),… If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations 27 Jul 2015 - APA does not provide exact guidance for handling citations and a Reference page in PowerPoint presentations. However If an entire slide can be attributed to one source, you can put the in-text citation in the bottom corner of the slide. You can use If you don't have room to double space, that's ok..According to the American Psychological Association (2000),… If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving MADD , 2000) Second citation: (MADD, 2000) Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.Johnson, 1998) Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list APA Writing Style Guide The Learning Center.
Johnson, 1998) Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list.
Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation APA Writing Style Guide The Learning Center.Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that… Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterwords in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.(Funk & Kolln, 1992) Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication freeandroidgaming.com/homework/space-technology.php.(Funk & Kolln, 1992) Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.Do not include personal communication in the reference list.
Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase.
List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.Johnson argued that…(as cited in Smith, 2003, p.Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above.Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.
Electronic Sources If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.Kenneth (2000) explained… Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation “n.Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring (“Tutoring and APA,” n.
Sources Without Page Numbers When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited.When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation “para.” followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para.
If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading.According to Smith (1997), … (Mind over Matter section, para.Note: Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
For more information, please consult thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 Footnotes and Endnotes APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce.However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document, APA details the use of two types of footnotes: content and copyright.When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark.Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses.
Scientists examined—over several years 1—the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak.
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2 (These have now been transferred to the Chauan Museum.Footnotes may also appear on the final page of your document (usually this is after the References page).Center the word “Footnotes” at the top of the page 25 Oct 2016 - Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) with 1″ margins on all sides. Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask.
Center the word “Footnotes” at the top of the page.
Indent five spaces on the first line of each footnote.Then, follow normal paragraph spacing rules.1 While the method of examination for the wooly-wooly yak provides important insights to this research, this document does not focus on this particular species.Content Notes Content Notes provide supplemental information to your readers.
When providing Content Notes, be brief and focus on only one subject.Try to limit your comments to one small paragraph.Content Notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail elsewhere.1 See Blackmur (1995), especially chapters 3 and 4, for an insightful analysis of this extraordinary animal.
Copyright Permission Notes If you quote more than 500 words of published material or think you may be in violation of “Fair Use” copyright laws, you must get the formal permission of the author(s).
All other sources simply appear in the reference list.Follow the same formatting rules as with Content Notes for noting copyright permissions.Then attach a copy of the permission letter to the document.If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information.You should also submit written permission along with your work.
Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed.
, 2 Reference List: Basic Rules Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper.It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper.Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page “References” centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title).All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
Basic Rules All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin.Authors’ names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors.If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author’s name.After the ellipses, list the last author’s name of the work.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title.