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KRAFT FOODS CORPORATION, COMPANY PORTFOLIO IntroductionDuring the 1920s, the ice cream industry in the United States was extremely fragmented Research studies and existing literature have laid more emphasis on the determining the relationship between gun control and crime rates in the United States, leaving a gap that requires the evaluation of the effectiveness of the gun control policies in meeting the objectives behind gun control. Research Hypothesis.KRAFT FOODS CORPORATION, COMPANY PORTFOLIO IntroductionDuring the 1920s, the ice cream industry in the United States was extremely fragmented.

It was these reason that led to the formation of Kraft Foods Corporation in 1923.The formation of the company had the view of consolidating the already fragmented industry admin Page 613 Premium Custom Writing Service with nbsp.The formation of the company had the view of consolidating the already fragmented industry.Nevertheless, through various acquisitions, Kraft Foods Corporation expanded its product line to include various dairy products admin Page 613 Premium Custom Writing Service with nbsp.Nevertheless, through various acquisitions, Kraft Foods Corporation expanded its product line to include various dairy products.As such, the company emerged the largest dairy company in not only the United States but also the entire world.

Kraft Food Corporation achieved this milestone within less than a decade, that is, the company had emerged as the world’s largest dairy company by 1930.In this regard, this paper discusses the company portfolio of Kraft Foods Corporation.Overview of Kraft Food CorporationIn 1909, James L.Kraft established a cheese business in Chicago.

By then, the strategies of this young business included product development and marketing.Through the effective execution of this strategy, the company was able to sell 31 varieties of cheese within the borders of the US.L Kraft and Bros Company and the Rieck McJunkin Dairy of Pittsburgh, PA, the company changed its name to the National Dairy Products Corporation.The company was listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).The acquisitions of the company were done via stock instead of cash.The company began diversifying into the confectionary businesses such macaroni, candies, and margarines in 1950s.This was because dairy products started becoming low value added.

The degree of the company’s diversification is indicated by the fact that it also invested into the business of glass packaging with the Metro Glass acquisition.The company continued venturing into this business even into the 1960s as it raided into markets internationally via acquisitions.According to Allen and Fjermestad (2001), the company changed its name to Kraft 1969.This was followed by the reorganization in the structure of the company.Burke (2009) also pointed out that marketing and advertisement of the products has remained to be one of the focus points of the company.

In fact, this is what Kraft Foods Corporation heavily relies on for the sale of its product internationally.Kraft Foods have various product offerings in confectionery: cheese, dairy foods, beverages, snack foods and convenience foods.These products are marketed in over 170 nations.The company’s brand portfolio contains 12 brands with revenues exceeding 1 billion dollars and 50 other brands with revenues over 100 billion dollars.The company has ventured into several product domains and various markets internationally.

It achieved this primarily via mergers and acquisitions.According to Eisingerich and Ghardwaj (2011), mergers and acquisitions appear to be the adopted way of the company of increasing its operations and introducing new products from its portfolio into the local markets.The 2010 statistics showed that the company was headquartered in Northfield Illinois and that it had revenues of 49.In addition, as of 2010, the company had about 127 thousand employees internationally.

Organization Structure and IntegrationThe company has been working on a new organization structure that streamlines it better.

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The company has a long-term strategy of having a broad portfolio, and therefore it wants to shift away from being only a chocolate producer.The company uses a functional organizational structure.The diagram below shows a portion of organizational structure of Kraft Foods Corporation Do you want your assignment written by the best dissertation experts? Then look […]   However, older techniques have been limited in the scope and ease with which DNA can be altered. Recently   Popular topics are growth and the environment, trade strategy, population growth, and income inequality. You can also  .The diagram below shows a portion of organizational structure of Kraft Foods Corporation.

In functional organizational structure, employees within functional divisions of the organizations seem to perform specialized assignments.

For example, the IT department might only be staffed with IT professionals only does in order to successfully launch a new business. This is   and Survival Strategies by Molly Lavik and Bruce Buskirk, Mini Module on Assessing Market Opportunity, pages xxxix-xli. 9 http://www.   buyers to culturally meaningful and innovative products, ATA provides needed economic opportunities to artisans while  .For example, the IT department might only be staffed with IT professionals only.According to English (2000), this organizational structure results in operational efficiencies within the various functional divisions within Kraft Foods Corporation.Functional organizations comprises of specialized divisions reporting to single authority that is usually referred to as the top management.These functional units comprise of personnel possessing the same skills.According to Goi (2009), every division handles a single aspect of a service or a product.

Some of the functional divisions as Kraft Foods Corporation include marketing, development, and research among others.The top management has the primary role of coordinating the efforts of every functional unit and meshing them into a cohesive whole.The first advantage of this structure is that it results in the development of specialists, particularly in technical fields.This structure clusters individuals with the same knowledge in the same division.According to Goi (2005), if an organization has a well-crafted performance management, which encourages the visibility of individual skills, this structure makes it extremely easy to coach other.

This structure promotes high performance among employees.The objective of this structure is to put all informational and human resources required for a single assignment in one place.According to Goldschmidt (2010), this capitalizes on performance by enabling the sharing of important expertise between superiors and subordinates.The leaders of these divisions are experts in both their respective fields and in the available resources.This enables every functional division to reach its greatest capacity and inhibit the overexploitation of limited resources.

Involved management and specialized training imply that standout employees are quickly noticed and placed where they can be most efficient.Nevertheless, this structure comes along with some drawbacks.According to Kotler (2003), the same attributes resulting in increased specialization and production result in sophisticated decision-making and communication process.Because the functional groups at Kraft Foods Corporation are not accountable to each other, the decision-making process is extremely bureaucratic and seems to take long.

Despite the flow of communication within the functional unit being convenient, communication between various units and work synchronization, and completion of project are more difficult to manage.

Kraft’s Corporate StrategiesThe company unveiled various corporate strategies in order to influence growth in the near future in its yearly Consumer Analyst Group conference held in New York (Kraft Foods Corporation 2010).The company’s management perceived that the company is in a good position to grow because of the virtuous cycle shown below.The diagram below shows the corporate strategies that Kraft Foods Corporation pursues in order to grow and have a competitive edge over its rivals in the confectionary industry (Kraft Foods Corporation 2010).Figure 1: corporate strategies The visualized virtuous cycle that was perceived by the management of the corporation had various key features.The first key feature is that the virtuous cycle was perceived to have the ability to revitalize the power brands.

This was achievable through highly investing in the advertisement of the power brand driving innovation.Kraft also strategized on revitalizing the power brands by using the policies of entrepreneurial management to grow the local brands.The second feature of this virtuous cycle was the increase in marketing excellence and sales.In addition, the virtuous cycle was also perceived to have the ability to implement end-to-end cost management in order to attain record savings.

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The diagram below shows the virtuous cycle that the company uses to achieve its corporate strategies (Kraft Foods Corporation 2010).

Figure 2: Virtuous cycle Therefore, the overall focus of the company’s corporate strategy appears to be divided into two significant parts that include brand building and cost reduction.In relation to brand building, the strategy attempts to associate the quality and the uniqueness of its products with the power brands the consumers’ mind Business Fundamentals pdf Startup Company Tech Start Ups Scribd.In relation to brand building, the strategy attempts to associate the quality and the uniqueness of its products with the power brands the consumers’ mind.

The company pursues this first part of the strategy by performing aggressive advertising, increasing sales and incorporating additional marketing efforts.In relation to cost reduction, the company hopes to achieve cost saving initiatives in order to increase its profitability .In relation to cost reduction, the company hopes to achieve cost saving initiatives in order to increase its profitability.According to Kraft Foods Corporation (2010), the corporate strategy of the company can also be divided in to two: business level strategy and international strategy.

Business level Strategy For companies like Kraft Foods Corporation that have an extremely broad product lines across the various categories of product, the specific business level strategies seem to vary from one product line to another.For instance, the coffee brand of Maxwell House Division that is marketed by Kraft Foods pursues the cost leadership strategy with its regular ground strategy.However, the Maxwell House Division has a strategy of differentiation for few of its products such as the Rich French Roast and Colombian Supreme.Kraft is capable of combining various product lines along with the cost leadership strategy, though doing it is not easy to achieve.According to Kraft Foods Corporation (2010), this is because of the company’s impressive efficiencies of distribution linked to its scale and size.

In addition, the experience of Kraft Foods in the foods and beverage industry enables the company to be able to combine cost leadership strategy with various product lines.Therefore, as much as, the business level strategy might vary from one product line to another, the broad corporate level strategy shows that the company follows an integrated differentiation or leadership strategy.International StrategyThe company has divided its market based on geographical aspects into 3 significant sections: American market, European market and developing market.The pie chart below shows the 3 main markets that the company seems to cater to.From the chart, it is evident that the American market still has the highest share of the company’s sales.

Nevertheless, the company is currently focusing in developing markets.According to Milton (2007), these developing markets seem to be growing at 20 per cent on annual basis.In addition, these markets hold an enormous potential for the future (Kraft Foods Corporation 2010).Figure 3: MarketsIn order to cater for the increasing needs of these developing markets, the company has devised a strategy referred to as 5-10-10 strategy.With this new strategy, the company targets the developing markets.

According to Goldschmidt (2010), the company has identified about 10 precedence markets and 10 power brands across the 5 categories of its products that will be launched in the near future.The 10 priority markets include Brazil, India, Russia, China, Mexico, Ukraine, Poland and South Africa among others.The 10 power brands include MILKA chocolate, Jacobs coffee, Cadbury, Tang Beverages and Trident gums among others.The five categories of products include coffee, chocolate, Biscuits, Powdered drinks, and candy and gum.Kraft’s Marketing MixEvery company, including Kraft relies on its sales to keep them in the turbulent industry.

Therefore, the responsibility of the sales division or department is critical in ensuring the success of any company or business.The four Ps include product, price, place and promotion.According to Kotler (2003), the four Ps of marketing are extremely crucial in determining what consumers prefer.The product mix is critical in identifying the products looked for by consumers.

The price mix is crucial in determining the price consumers are willing to pay for a certain product.The place mix is significant in determining the location where consumer can buy the products.The promotion mix determines the form of advertising and promotional efforts that will attract consumers of a product.

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Marketing requires effective coordination of these 4Ps.It involves researching the requirements of the consumer in order to satisfy them.

According to English (2000), marketing involves delivering the right product at the right price and delivering the right promotion at the right place Where to find presentation income inequality online double spaced 12 hours Premium British.According to English (2000), marketing involves delivering the right product at the right price and delivering the right promotion at the right place.

As such, marketing involves persuading consumers that the organizations has the four Ps they want.Through the sales division, Kraft concentrates on fulfilling the needs of both consumers and customers Where to get college presentation income inequality US Letter Size 2 days Graduate Proofreading.Through the sales division, Kraft concentrates on fulfilling the needs of both consumers and customers.The company achieves this by ensuring that their products are available on retailers’ shelves for consumers to buy Where to get college presentation income inequality US Letter Size 2 days Graduate Proofreading.

The company achieves this by ensuring that their products are available on retailers’ shelves for consumers to buy.

According to Kraft Foods Corporation (2010), majority of the company’s UK Sales force is based in Cheltenham, which is Kraft’s Head Office.

Kraft’s sales force operates based on teams freeandroidgaming.com/thesis-proposal/macro-economics.php.Kraft’s sales force operates based on teams.Each of these teams takes care of specific customers.Within every team, members are responsible for a certain product categories such as coffee or cheese.According to Eisingerich and Ghardwaj (2011), this role is referred to as account management.Goi (2005) pointed out that success in selling is based on carefully managing certain accounts.

The main aim is to assist retailers to sell Kraft products and ensuring that the sales figures not only fulfil the company’s targets but also the targets of customers.The company strives to assist retailers meet the increasing demands of consumers in the current competitive market place.In relation to promotion mix, Kraft Foods Corporation has various specialist roles within the sales.The Category planning guarantees that the sales targets are achieved by managing the various promotional plans for every customer.The Category Development utilizes the information gathered through market research to create the sales rationale.

According to Goi (2005), this is product and market knowledge that account managers can share with retailers in order to assist them sell the company’s products.The Sales Point of Purchase team offers the expertise on Point of Purchase activity such as promotional materials.The account managers at the company lease with the head office of every specific customer.This allows them to negotiate a deal with one important contact from every retail chain rather than with every store separately.

According to Allen and Fjermestad (2001), this is both time and cost effective.It also promotes consistency across all the respective stores because they are co-ordinated by their head office.Kraft’s Approach to Human ResourceHuman resource management is a strategic and rational approach to the overseeing of the most valued assets of an organization.The working people at Kraft Foods collectively and individually contribute to the attainment of the objectives of the company.According to Goi (2009), the terms human resource (HR) and human resource management (HRM) have replaced the term personnel management.

English (2000) refers to HRM as employing people, utilizing, maintaining and paying for their services.The features of HRM at Kraft Foods Corporation include organizational management, personnel management, labor management, and industrial management.According to Goldschmidt (2010), the future of the Kraft Foods Corporation relies on the quality of the people employees and their experience once they are hired.This is where the Kraft’s Food Corporation turns to human resource resources.However, there is lots of human resources at Kraft Foods.

According to Milton (2007), this is because the company shapes each strategic decision it makes.In this regard, it is evident that the company deploys the philosophy of strategic human resource management (SHRM).

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There are three strands of work that can be observed within strategic human resource management: best fit, best practice and resource-based view (RBV).The concept of best practice, which also called high commitment HRM, argues that the adoption of specific HRM practices will lead to better organizational performance.The concept of best fit, also known as contingency approach to HRM, proposes that HRM enhances performance where there is a close vertical fit between the company’s strategy and HRM practices KRAFT FOODS CORPORATION COMPANY PORTFOLIO Ideal nbsp.

The concept of best fit, also known as contingency approach to HRM, proposes that HRM enhances performance where there is a close vertical fit between the company’s strategy and HRM practices.

The philosophy of SHRM deployed by Kraft Foods Corporation has various benefits.The philosophy enables open communication that results in improved information delivery and discovery.According to Allen and Fjermestad (2001), SHRM it allows employees to discuss post news, discuss ideas, share links and ask questions The diagram below shows the corporate strategies that Kraft Foods Corporation pursues in order to grow and have a competitive edge over its rivals in the confectionary industry   According to Kraft Foods Corporation (2010), this is because of the company's impressive efficiencies of distribution linked to its scale and size..According to Allen and Fjermestad (2001), SHRM it allows employees to discuss post news, discuss ideas, share links and ask questions.It also offers an opening to widen the business contacts.Some authors have claimed that SHRM aims at a wider audience, which makes it an effective and useful tool for recruitment freeandroidgaming.com/thesis-proposal.php.

Some authors have claimed that SHRM aims at a wider audience, which makes it an effective and useful tool for recruitment.

On the other hand, SHRM comes along with several drawbacks.The first drawback is that it leads to negative comments from the workforce concerning the possible legal consequences or company.In addition, SHRM might possibly lead to lost productivity, particularly if employees busy updating their work profiles.Kraft’s Corporate Social ResponsibilityCorporate Social Responsibility (CSR) refers to a form of corporate self-management incorporated into a business model.CSR encourages a positive impact via its activities on consumers, environment, communities, employees, stakeholders and other public members.People eat and drink almost 900 million servings of products Kraft Foods each day worldwide.This gives the company a vast opportunity to have a positive effect on the health and well-being of consumers.Therefore, the company’s focus is on making their products more wholesome and nutritious, while offering the same taste consumers have expected.The company has various programs all over the world that positively affects the people and the environment.

” The Kraft Mobile Pantry Program is positively affecting families living in the US food-scarce regions.In 2009, the company pledged about 5 million dollars to Feeding America.According to Goi (2005), the mobile pantry program brings more food and nutrition to families and children who need the most.

The Canadian confectionary team of Kraft Foods created the Bicycle Factory in 2009 in order to unite Canadians send bicycles to children in cocoa-growing communities in Ghana.

This program had the main objective of helping the children in these communities to have an access to education.According to Kraft Foods Corporation (2010), this program is based on the simple concept that small purchases can result in a big difference for the needy people.The company also joined the initiative of the World Economic Forum, which was referred to as New Vision for Agriculture.The objective of this initiative is to define the various ways to ensure food security.From the various CSR programs of Kraft Foods, it is evident that the company has a good name.

ConclusionThe formation of the company had the view of consolidating the already fragmented industry.Through the effective execution of this strategy, the company was able to sell 31 varieties of cheese within the borders of the US.The company uses a functional organizational structure.In functional organizational structure, employees within functional divisions of the organizations seem to perform specialized assignments.The overall focus of the company’s corporate strategy appears to be divided into two significant parts that include brand building and cost reduction.

The broad corporate level strategy shows that the company follows an integrated differentiation or leadership strategy.It is evident that the company deploys the philosophy of strategic human resource management (SHRM).

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References List Logistics Information Management, vol 14, no.Burke, G 2009, Kraft Foods offers salmonella timeline, viewed 9 April 2013, Help me do an income inequality presentation 100% plagiarism-free Premium American two hours PhD.htm”/news/health/2009-04-06-salmonella-pistachio N.

Eisingerich, B & Ghardwaj, G 2011, ‘Corporate Social Responsibility: does social responsibility help protect a company’s reputation?’, MIT Sloan Management Review, vol 52, pp.English, J 2000, ‘The four “P”s of marketing are dead’, Marketing Health Services, vol 20, no.Goi, L 2005, ‘Marketing mix: a review of ‘P’’, Journal of Internet Banking and Commence, vol 10, pp.Goi, C 2009, ‘A review of marketing mix: 4Ps or more? ‘, International Journal of Marketing Studies , vol 1, no.Goldschmidt, B 2010, Corporate Social Responsibility: Kraft, Feeding America Provide Oasis in Midst of Food Deserts, viewed 9 April 2013, .Kotler, P 2003, Kraft Foods Corporation 2010, Milton, T 2007, Kraft plans to regionalise organisational structure, viewed 9 April 2013, .

Importance of the Study Pros and Cons of Gun Control Statement of the Problem The overall purpose of this study is to determine whether gun control is based on availability.Research studies and existing literature have laid more emphasis on the determining the relationship between gun control and crime rates in the United States, leaving a gap that requires the evaluation of the effectiveness of the gun control policies in meeting the objectives behind gun control.Research Hypothesis Research objectives ii.

To determine the correlation between gun control and availability of guns Dependent variables: What constitutes gun control; unified gun laws throughout the United States, mandatory training and education for guns being purchased, regulating gun sales by licensed dealers and requires all gun owners to maintain license for all guns and ammunition.Independent variables: Different gun laws throughout the U.in different states, lack of training and education people have that purchase and own guns, ability to purchase guns from an unlicensed gun dealer and stricter penalties for people who possess unlicensed guns and ammunition.Literature Review Gun control in the United States is a contentious subject that has diverse viewpoints regarding its effectiveness in reducing the rates of violent crime.

Lott (2000) defines gun control as the strategies and efforts aimed at limiting the ownership, production, trading, shipping and use of guns and associated weapons by by private citizens.A significant body of research has been conducted in order to evaluate the relationhip that exists between gun ownership and crimes that are gun related (Levitt, 2004).The studies have reported different findings leaving a significant void that requires to effectively determine the factors that lead to the crimes committed under gun-ownership.In a study conducted by Killias Martin in 23 nations, it was established that there is a positive relationship between ownership of guns and crimes that are gun related such as homicide and suicide (Killias, 2001).The research also established that there were relatively lesser correlation between ownership of guns and the total rates of homicidal crimes.

A similar study conducted by Killias Martin during 2001 established that there was a strong correlation that existed between the sum of the homicide rates that are related to guns among women and other assaults directed at women using guns.However, this was not case for the crimes that are committed against men.An interesting finding of the study is that there were no significant correlations with regard to the sum of the homicide rates observed during the study (Jacobs, 2002).This left a void regarding the possibility of substitution effects, and that the research represents a correlation and not a case of casulity.

An inference that can be reached from this study is that availability of guns has the potential of imposing more violence.

The study could also reflect that increased rates of violence are likely to impose higher instances of gun ownership for the main purposes of self defense and any other individual independent cause (Kleck D.Jacobs (2002) notes that gun control laws usually regulate the kinds of firearms that can be bought and offer criteria for individuals who desire to own a gun and provide guidelines regarding the storage and use of guns.In an ideal society where the gun control laws are observed, it can be argued that less availability and ownership of guns translates to reduced crime rates.Jacob (2002) further notes that there is a two-step connection that exists between gun control and the rates of violent crime in a given society, which includes the impact that gun control imposes on the availability of guns and the impacts that availability of guns imposes on the rates of crime committed.

This means that the nature of the influences is two-fold (Kleck , 2004a).On the other hand, high rates of violent crimes that are gun-related serves to justify the use of more strict gun control policies and laws.A casual effect can be deduced from the effectiveness of the gun conrol policies and the level of crime rates (Killias, 2001).

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A precise correlation is difficult to establish because of the changing relationship between gun control and the rates of crime over time.The area of concern is whether the gun control laws are effective in restricting accesibility and ownership of guns by the public.

Lee (2002) argues that crime rates witnessed during the early 1990s could have triggered the adoption of more strict gun control policies and laws, which in turn could have played a significant role in reducing the crime rates during the later 1990s myplacehost.net/paper.php 2017-12-15 daily 0.9 myplacehost.net/paper/imaging-systems-and-technology.php 2017-12-15 daily 0.9 myplacehost.net/case-study/best-websites-to-write-zoology-case-study-american-single-spaced-84-pages-23100-words 2017-12-15 daily 0.9 myplacehost.net/case-study.php 2017-12-15  .Lee (2002) argues that crime rates witnessed during the early 1990s could have triggered the adoption of more strict gun control policies and laws, which in turn could have played a significant role in reducing the crime rates during the later 1990s.

This twin relationship between gun control and rates of crime makes it difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of the gun control policies in restricting access to guns by the public (Kleck, 2003b).Levitt (2004) notes that research studies that have attempted to evaluate the impacts of gun control on the rates of crime are constrained by two significant problems.First, it is difficult to come up with variables that can be used to measure gun control and determining the practical complement to gun control Pros and Cons of Gun Control Ideal Essay Writers.First, it is difficult to come up with variables that can be used to measure gun control and determining the practical complement to gun control.Gun control is awide concept that entails a diverse range of ideas including laws that prohibit the ownership of specific kinds of firearms and the addition of gun locks to each gun that has been sold.

It is arguably evident that these variables signify legislative acts that are discrete and have been enacted on different times by different administration (Kleck D.Therefore, how does this elements of gun control interact to regulate the level of availability of guns to the public? Secondly, there is an underlying complexity regarding the variables that determine the effectiveness of gun control laws established at state levels.Levitt, (2004) maintains that the effectiveness of gun control policies extends beyond their enactment to onclude the extent to which they are enforced.A significant flaw in the early research studies to assess the pros and cons of gun control is the failure to incorporate the pertinent variable for gun control.

For instance, Halbrook, (2000) infers a conclusion basing on the zero-order correlation that is positive between ownership of firewarns and gun-related violence to conclude that gun control helps in the reduction of rates of violent crimes.Ommited variables are likely to ompose misguided conclusions on the relationship that exists between gun control, availability and gun-related violent crimes.Monroe (2008) cites Seitz (1972) as a perfect example of an empirical research that suffered from the costs of ommitting important variables, the study used the state observations to conclude that there was a correlation coefficient of 0.98 between homicides that are gun related and the total homicides.An inference that Seitz makes is that a reduction in the availability of guns in the public will serve to reduce the ammount of homicides.

The conclusion does not take into consideration the efficiency of the gun control laws in infleuncing the level of guns availability in the public.Jacobs (2002) states that the correlation between the two variables of homicides is not a new finding on grounds that gun-related homicides comprise of at least 60 % of the total homicides committed in the United States.Pertinent variables that were ommitted in this studies are the social and economic variables that are bound to affect the the accessibility of guns and their influence on homicide.Studies conducted during the 1970s and 1980s that took into consideration control for social and economic measures established that there is evidence to conclude that gun control is effective in the reduction of the rates of violent crimes.The studies used regression analysis, observation of state data and a vactor analysis of the social and economic variables to conclude that gun control policies do not impose significant influences in reducing the rates of violent crime that extends beyond the crimes that can be associated to social and economic conditions (Squires, 2000).

Besides, controlling for social factors during the studies implied that the gun control laws had a relatively less impact in reducing violent crimes.Recent studies have established that gun ownership exhibits a strong correlation with gun related homicides and not the extent of the strictness of the gun control laws.This leaves the gap that requires the evaluation of the effectivenss of the gun control laws in limiting availability and ownership of guns by the public.Studies to determine the effectiveness of gun control laws was conducted by Kwon et al (1997) with the principal objective of determining the efficacy of the gun control policies adopted by the various states.Kwon et al (1997) concludes that gun control policies have a little influence in reducing the rates of gun related homicides although the evidence gathered during the study is weak.

According to the study, 3 deaths out of 100000 populations are evaded when the kinds of firearms included in the study are deployed.Monroe (2008) notes that this research has significant flaws including the ommission of variables, interpretation of the findings and errors relating to the specification of models.Presently, there is no standpoint with regard to the studies that use state data.Studies that rely on state data to conclude tha gun control helps in reducing the rates of violent crime are considerd to be significantly inconsistent.On the contrary, while a significant number of studies that rely on state data have not reported a restraint impact associated with gun control, there is a failure to determine the efficacy of the gun control laws in imposing a deterrent impact on the accessibility, availability and ownership of guns, which is a principal area of focus for this current study.

Research Method Research method is determined by the structure of the research question and the research context.Social research aims at providing an explanation for current state of affairs using predetermined variables.

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Social research significantly depends on probability; therefore, providing an explanation why a given variable plays a significant role in determining the outcome is vital.This implies that it is imperative for the social research to put more emphasis on the findings, coupled with a correlation to the available theoretical frameworks to explain the effectiveness of gun control in restricting availability and ownership of guns.When carrying out a social research, the researcher can choose between qualitative and quantitative approaches (3) Analyze the economic problems faced by the country and suggest strategies for accelerating growth, attaining sustainable development, reducing poverty and income inequality and decreasing external imbalances. A good starting point to get a handle on the country is to look at its historical, cultural and political systems  .

When carrying out a social research, the researcher can choose between qualitative and quantitative approaches.

Quantitative approach entails the compilation and breakdown of experimental data and statistics to result to infer a conclusion; it involves collecting data through investigative units such as questionnaires.Qualitative approach on the other hand utilizes analysis and evaluation of qualitative data through interviews and observation to reach a conclusion.This research requires both the analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data that will be collected from the citizens and state departments regarding the effectiveness of gun control laws, with the data acquisition methods incorporating both primary and secondary is because the data collected was in form of questionnaires and interviews, which are both quantitative and qualitative respectively Need to order a presentation income inequality Undergraduate 30 days A4 (British/European) double spaced.This research requires both the analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data that will be collected from the citizens and state departments regarding the effectiveness of gun control laws, with the data acquisition methods incorporating both primary and secondary is because the data collected was in form of questionnaires and interviews, which are both quantitative and qualitative respectively.The deductive approach was used since the research began by description of concepts such as the variables affecting the effectiveness of gun control, after which it will involve an analysis of empirical evidence.

Therefore, a deductive approach was used because the research study commences with a research hypothesis and terminates with empirical measurement, analysis and evaluation of research findings.

Research sample The research was conducted across the state of New Jersey among the local law enforcement personnel and the public.The sampling approach that was employed was quota sampling and convenience sampling.Quota sampling refers to a situation whereby the researcher chooses a proportion of the elements that was investigated during the study.The partition can be based on different categories such as gender, age, lifestyle and ethnicity.The researcher can then decide which categories to use in the proportion of the study elements depending on the ease of access.

The quotas that were chosen for this research were categorised into three distinct groups: ≤ 30, 31-40, and ≥ 41.A further classification was based on gender and the social statuses of the citizens of New Jersey.Proposed data collection methods and variables Data collection is a significant requirement for the success of any social research since it determines the success of the research in terms of facilitating the inference of conclusions.This implies that a social research should significantly rely on statistical data since it deploys a probabilistic approach to offer a rational explanation to the ways things are currently in the social context.Data consists of two types: primary data that is collected by the researcher and secondary data that has been collected by other researchers (Ritchie & Lewis, 2003).

For the purpose of confirmation of the social theoretical models, this social research will utilize both secondary and primary data sources.Primary research Primary research involves the data acquisition based on first-hand information by the researcher (Fisher, 2007).This will be carried out using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, which will be based on a one-on-one approach with the respondent.Primary data sources serves as an effective method of carrying out a research because the information gathered is usually raw and has not been manipulated, this in turn increases the accuracy of the research study (Ruane, 2005).In addition, the primary data collected can be used to match against the secondary sources for accuracy purposes (Maxfield & Babbie, 2009).

The various ways of gathering primary data that were used during the research include questionnaires and interviews.Questionnaires Ruane (2005) defines questionnaire as “self-contained, self-administered tool for asking questions”.The use of questionnaire is ideal since it facilitates the acquisition enormous amounts of data within a restricted period.A structured question can be either in form of multiple choices, dichotomous questions or scales.Dichotomous questions are designed to collect the fundamental data from respondents such as Male or Female, age and other basic personal information (Maxwell, 1996).

Dichotomous questions will save time required for the respondents to answer the questions.They were in a simple format involving Yes or No multiple-choice questions.This research aims at collecting approximately 100 questionnaires the respondents within the state of New Jersey.Data analysis Data analysis is an essential phase in social research because they are used to infer conclusions.The research findings will provide a framework for agreement or refute of the already formulated hypothesis.

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It is therefore important that the data collected should be as accurate as possible to facilitate the process of data analysis.The data collected during the research will entail both qualitative and quantitative data.This implies that both inferential and descriptive statistics was used to arrive at the conclusion (Maxfield & Babbie, 2009) Compute the Gini coefficient for the following income distribution: 10 people earn $1 each; 10 peopl… Show more Compute the Gini coefficient for the following income distribution:   If you are unfamiliar with Chicago-style citation, we have full access to the digital Chicago Manual of Style through the library’s website..This implies that both inferential and descriptive statistics was used to arrive at the conclusion (Maxfield & Babbie, 2009).

Descriptive statistics in a social research usually serve to summarize and describe data with quantities such as percentage, proportion, mean, mode, mode and other descriptive statistical quantities.Inferential statistics on the other hand was used to generalize on the sample population; it will generally entail the use of statistical tests such as variance, chi-square, standard deviation and other statistical test variables Income inequality in the US. December 10, 2012 admin. Income inequality in the US ORDER THIS ESSAY HERE NOW AND GET A DISCOUNT !!!   Format and features. Approx. 275 words / page; All paper formats (APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago/Turabian); Font: 12 point Arial/Times New Roman; Double and single spacing  .

Inferential statistics on the other hand was used to generalize on the sample population; it will generally entail the use of statistical tests such as variance, chi-square, standard deviation and other statistical test variables.

The approach for data analysis will consist of mainly univariate data analysis, which examines the distribution of one statistical variable at a time.Bivariate data analysis will also be deployed in analysis cases that will require the evaluation of the relationship between two variables, for example, the relationship that exists between gun control and gun related crimes (Fisher, 2007).Issues of validity of the research Limitations of the research The significant constraint that the research will face is the time constraints.This may result to inadequate collection of questionnaires.This may result to a higher marginal error.

Another problem was that some target respondents might not be interested in answering the questions during the research and during interview.Some respondents may also provide inaccurate information, which will affect the accuracy of the findings and their respective interpretation.Data analysis and interpretation will deploy adequate provisions in order to addresses the anticipated marginal error imposed by the research methodology.Importance of the Study This research is of significant value to the state, local and federal governments, and the various statutes that are implemented in response to the looming crisis of gun control in the United States.The study offers a framework through which proactive actions can be implemented in order to address the pertinent issues revolving gun availability in the United States.

Therefore, the paper can be used by the law enforcement agencies at the federal, state and local government as a framework through which responsive action can be formulated in order to effectively address the inefficiencies of the gun control policies in order to reduce gun related violence.Nazi Firearms Law and the Disarming of the German Jews.Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law , 17 (3), 528.

Can Gun Control Work? New York: Oxford University Press.Guns, violent crime, and suicide in 21 countries.Canadian Journal of Criminology , 128-130.Victim resistance and offender weapon effects in robbery.

Journal of Quantitative Criminology , 154-169.The Effectiveness of Gun Control Laws: A Multivariate Statistical Analysis.American Journal of Economics and Sociology , 41-50.Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not.Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology.

Qualitative research design: An interactive approach.Homicide and gun control: the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act and homicide rates.Essentials of research methods: a guide to social science research.Firearms, Homicides, and Gun Control Effectiveness.Gun culture or gun control?: firearms, violence and society.

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